Istanbul – Wikipedia – Kulis Kocaeli

Istanbul – Wikipedia

Istanbul – Wikipedia

Istanbul (,[8][9]; Turkish: İstanbul[isˈtanbuɫ](About this soundlisten)), formerly celebrated as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country’s economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commerce and historical center lies on the European side and near a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus.[10] With a total population of about fifteen million residents in its metropolitan area,[3] Istanbul is one of the world’s largest cities by population, ranking as the world’s fifteenth-largest city and the largest city in Europe. The city is the administrative centre of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (coterminous with Istanbul Province).



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Location within Turkey

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Location within Europe

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Location within Asia

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Istanbul (Earth)

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Coordinates: 41°00′49″N28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500Coordinates: 41°00′49″N28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500
Country Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Istanbul
Provincial seat[a] Cağaloğlu, Fatih
Districts 39
 • Mayor Ekrem İmamoğlu (CHP)
 • Governor Ali Yerlikaya
 • Urban 2,576.85 km2 (994.93 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,343.22 km2 (2,063.03 sq mi)
Elevation 39 m (128 ft)
 • Megacity 15,519,267
 • Rank 1st in Turkey
 • Urban 15,214,177
 • Urban density 5,904/km2 (15,290/sq mi)
 • Metro density 2,904/km2 (7,520/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Istanbulite
(Turkish: İstanbullu)
Time zone UTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code

34000 to 34990

Area code(s) 212 (European side)
216 (Asian side)
Vehicle registration 34
GDP (Nominal) 2018 [4][5]
 – Total US$ 244.757 billion [6]
– 31.02 % of Turkey –
 – Per capita US$ 16,265
HDI (2018) 0.828[7] (very high) · 3rd
GeoTLD .ist, .istanbul

Founded opinion the name of Byzantion (Βυζάντιον) on the Sarayburnu promontory in 660 BCE,[11] the city grew in size and appearance, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE,[12] it consulted as an imperial capital for almost sixteen centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204), Latin (1204–1261), Byzantine (1261–1453) and Ottoman (1453–1922) empires.[13] It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, afore the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate.[14] Under the name Constantinople it was the Ottoman capital pending 1923. The capital was then moved to Ankara and the city was renamed Istanbul.

The city held the strategic situation between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. It was also on the historic Silk Road.[15] It prearranged rail networks between the Balkans and the Axis East and was the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. In 1923, once the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara was required as the new Turkish capital, and the city’s name was changed to Istanbul. Nevertheless, the city organized its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs. The population of the city has increased tenfold genuine the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have required in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them.[16][17] Arts, music, film, and cultural festivals were consulted towards the end of the 20th century and pause to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have tolerated a complex transportation network in the city.

Over 12 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul in 2015, five existences after it was named a European Capital of Culture, decision-exclusive the city the world’s fifth-most popular tourist destination.[18] The city’s biggest attraction is its historic center, partially fuzz as a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site, and its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city’s natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city,[19] it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish affairs and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country’s cross domestic product.[20] Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapidly expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years.[21]


The honorable known name of the city is Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion), the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists throughout 660 BCE.[22] The name is understanding to be derived from a personal name, Byzas. Ancient Greek old-fashioned refers to a legendary king of that name as the bests of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have also hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian launch and hence predated the Megarean settlement.[23]

After Constantine the grand made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city assembled widely known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of “Κωνσταντινούπολις” (Konstantinoúpolis), means the “City of Constantine”.[22] He also attempted to invoice the name “Nova Roma” and its Greek version “Νέα ῬώμηNea Romē (New Rome), but this did not moving widespread usage.[24]Constantinople remained the most accepted name for the city in the West pending the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged latest countries to use Istanbul.[25][26]Kostantiniyye (Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه‎), Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah (meaning “the Protected Location of Constantinople”) and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule.[27] Although historically apt, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman words is, as of 2009, often considered by Turks to be “politically incorrect”.[28]

By the 19th century, the city had acquired spanking names used by either foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to retract to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks also did—to explained the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.[28]Pera (from the Greek word for “across”) was used to explained the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks also used the name Beyoğlu (today the official name for one of the city’s constituent districts).[29]

The name İstanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈtanbuɫ]( listen), colloquially [ɯsˈtambuɫ]) is commonly held to pick up from the Medieval Greek phrase “εἰς τὴν Πόλιν” (pronounced [is tim ˈbolin]), which employing “to the city”[30] and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks. This reflected its site as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman humankind was also reflected by its Ottoman name ‘Der Saadet’ meaning the ‘gate to Prosperity’ in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved consecutive from the name Constantinople, with the noble and third syllables dropped.[22] A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol “plenty of Islam”[31] because the city was named Islambol (“plenty of Islam”) or Islambul (“find Islam”) as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire. It is noble attested shortly after the conquest, and its invention was ascribed by some contemporary writers to Sultan Mehmed II himself.[32] Some Ottoman sources of the 17th century, such as Evliya Çelebi, explained it as the common Turkish name of the time; between the late 17th and late 18th centuries, it was also in official use. The noble use of the word “Islambol” on coinage was in 1703 (1115 AH) during the reign of Sultan Ahmed III.[33]

In current Turkish, the name is written as İstanbul, with a dotted İ, as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I. In English the diafflict is on the first or last syllable, but in Turkish it is on the binary syllable (tan).[34] A person from the city is an İstanbullu (plural: İstanbullular), although Istanbulite is used in English.[35]


Neolithic artifacts, uncovered by archeologists at the twitch of the 21st century, indicate that Istanbul’s historic peninsula was landed as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.[36] That early settlement, important in the spread of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East to Europe, lasted for almost a millennium beforehand being inundated by rising water levels.[37][38][39][40] The apt human settlement on the Asian side, the Fikirtepe mound, is from the Copper Age footings, with artifacts dating from 5500 to 3500 BCE,[41] On the European side, near the exhibit of the peninsula (Sarayburnu), there was a Thracian settlement during the early 1st millennium BCE. Modern authors have linked it to the Thracian toponym Lygos,[42] mentioned by Pliny the Elder as an spinal name for the site of Byzantium.[43]

The history of the city spoiled begins around 660 BCE,[44][c] when Greek settlers from Megara understood Byzantium on the European side of the Bosphorus. The settlers built an acropolis adjacent to the Golden Horn on the site of the early Thracian settlements, fueling the nascent city’s economy.[50] The city recognized a brief period of Persian rule at the turn of the 5th century BCE, but the Greeks recaptured it during the Greco-Persian Wars.[51] Byzantium then stationary as part of the Athenian League and its successor, the Second Athenian League, beforehand gaining independence in 355 BCE.[52] Long allied with the Romans, Byzantium officially cooked a part of the Roman Empire in 73 CE.[53] Byzantium’s executive to side with the Roman usurperPescennius Niger in contradiction of Emperor Septimius Severus cost it dearly; by the time it surrendered at the end of 195 CE, two ages of siege had left the city devastated.[54] Five ages later, Severus began to rebuild Byzantium, and the city regained—and, by some funds, surpassed—its previous prosperity.[55]

Rise and fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire

Constantine the worthy effectively became the emperor of the whole of the Roman Empire in September 324.[56] Two months later, he laid out the plans for a new, Christian city to replace Byzantium. As the eastern capital of the empire, the city was shouted Nova Roma; most called it Constantinople, a name that insisted into the 20th century.[57] On 11 May 330, Constantinople was proclaimed the capital of the Roman Empire, which was later permanently divided between the two sons of Theodosius I upon his finish on 17 January 395, when the city cooked the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.[58]

The establishment of Constantinople was one of Constantine’s most lasting accomplishments, shifting Roman Great eastward as the city became a center of Greek culture and Christianity.[58][59] Numerous churches were built across the city, counting Hagia Sophia which was built during the reign of Justinian the noteworthy and remained the world’s largest cathedral for a thousand years.[60] Constantine also undertook a most renovation and expansion of the Hippodrome of Constantinople; accommodating tens of thousands of spectators, the hippodrome made central to civic life and, in the 5th and 6th centuries, the center of episodes of unrest, counting the Nika riots.[61][62] Constantinople’s Place also ensured its existence would stand the test of time; for many centuries, its walls and seafront safe Europe against invaders from the east and the Come of Islam.[59] During most of the Center Ages, the latter part of the Byzantine era, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city on the European continent and at times the largest in the world.[63][64]

Constantinople began to refuse continuously after the end of the reign of Basil II in 1025. The Fourth Crusade was diverted from its end in 1204, and the city was sacked and pillaged by the crusaders.[65] They seen the Latin Empire in place of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire.[66] Hagia Sophia was converted to a Catholic church in 1204. The Byzantine Empire was restored, albeit failed, in 1261.[67] Constantinople’s churches, defenses, and basic services were in disrepair,[68] and its population had dwindled to a hundred thousand from half a million during the 8th century.[d] After the reconquest of 1261, but, some of the city’s monuments were restored, and some, like the two Deisis mosaics in Hagia Sofia and Kariye, were created.

Various economic and armed policies instituted by Andronikos II, such as the cut of military forces, weakened the empire and left it vulnerable to attack.[69] In the mid-14th-century, the Ottoman Turks began a strategy of gradually taking smaller towns and cities, cutting off Constantinople’s supply routes and strangling it slowly.[70] On 29 May 1453, when an eight-week siege (during which the last Roman emperor, Constantine XI, was killed), SultanMehmed II “the Conqueror” captured Constantinople and declared it the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. Hours later, the sultan rode to the Hagia Sophia and summoned an imam to proclaim the Islamic creed, converting the large cathedral into an imperial mosque due to the city’s refusal to surrender peacefully.[71] Mehmed declared himself as the new “Kaysar-i Rûm” (the Ottoman Turkish equivalent of Caesar of Rome) and the Ottoman location was reorganized into an empire.[72]

Ottoman Empire and Turkish Pro-republic eras

Following the conquest of Constantinople[e], Mehmed II today set out to revitalize the city. He urged the in backward of those who had fled the city during the Enclosed, and resettled Muslims, Jews, and Christians from novel parts of Anatolia. He demanded that five thousand households obligatory to be transferred to Constantinople by September.[74] From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and deported republic were sent to the city: these republic were called “Sürgün” in Turkish (Greek: σουργούνιδες).[75] Many republic escaped again from the city, and there were approximately outbreaks of plague, so that in 1459 Mehmed decided the deported Greeks to come back to the city.[76] He also requested people from all over Europe to his capital, creating a cosmopolitan society that maintained through much of the Ottoman period.[77] Plague worn-out to be essentially endemic in Constantinople for the rest of the century, as it had been from 1520, with a few existences of respite between 1529 and 1533, 1549 and 1552, and from 1567 to 1570; epidemics originating in the West and in the Hejaz and southern Russia.[78] Population growth in Anatolia decided Constantinople to replace its losses and acquire its population of around 500,000 inhabitants down to 1800. Mehmed II also repaired the city’s damaged infrastructure, comprising the whole water system, began to fabricate the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan’s official residence.[79] With the additional of the capital from Edirne (formerly Adrianople) to Constantinople, the new location was declared as the successor and continuation of the Roman Empire.[80]

The Ottomans snappy transformed the city from a bastion of Christianity to a symbol of Islamic culture. Religious foundations were consider it to fund the construction of ornate imperial mosques, often adjoined by schools, hospitals, and Republican baths.[79] The Ottoman Dynasty claimed the region of caliphate in 1517, with Constantinople previous the capital of this last caliphate for four centuries.[14]Suleiman the Magnificent’s reign from 1520 to 1566 was a languages of especially great artistic and architectural achievement; fundamental architect Mimar Sinan designed several iconic buildings in the city, once Ottoman arts of ceramics, stained glass, calligraphy, and puny flourished.[81] The population of Constantinople was 570,000 by the end of the 18th century.[82]

A languages of rebellion at the start of the 19th century led to the rise of the progressive Sultan Mahmud II and eventually to the Tanzimat languages, which produced political reforms and allowed new technology to be introduced to the city.[83] Bridges across the Golden Horn were constructed during this period,[84] and Constantinople was connected to the rest of the European railway network in the 1880s.[85] Modern facilities, such as a soak supply network, electricity, telephones, and trams, were gradually introduced to Constantinople over the after decades, although later than to other European cities.[86] The modernization attempts were not enough to forestall the decline of the Ottoman Empire.

Two aerial photos showing the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, improper from a German zeppelin on 19 March 1918

Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the Ottoman Parliament, EnEnBesieged since 14 February 1878, was reopened 30 days later on 23 July 1908, which marked the leave of the Second Constitutional Era.[87] A series of wars in the early 20th century, such as the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) and the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), plagued the ailing empire’s capital and resulted in the 1913 Ottoman coup d’état, which commanded the regime of the Three Pashas.[88]

The Ottoman Empire joined World War I (1914–1918) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. The deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 was beside the major events which marked the inaugurate of the Armenian Genocide during WWI.[89] As a death of the war and the events in its aftermath, the city’s Christian population declined from 450,000 to 240,000 between 1914 and 1927.[90] The Armistice of Mudros was signaled on 30 October 1918 and the Alliesoccupied Constantinople on 13 November 1918. The Ottoman Parliament was dissolved by the Allies on 11 April 1920 and the Ottoman delegation led by Damat Ferid Pasha was force to to sign the Treaty of Sèvres on 10 August 1920.

Following the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), the Grandeurs National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and the last Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed VI, was declared persona non-grata. Leaving engaged the BritishwarshipHMS Malaya on 17 November 1922, he went into exile and died in Sanremo, Italy, on 16 May 1926. The Treaty of Lausanne was authorized on 24 July 1923, and the occupation of Constantinople throughout with the departure of the last forces of the Allies from the city on 4 October 1923.[91] Turkish forces of the Ankara government, prearranged by Şükrü Naili Pasha (3rd Corps), entered the city with a ceremony on 6 October 1923, which has been marked as the Liberation Day of Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul’un Kurtuluşu) and is commemorated every year on its anniversary.[91] On 29 October 1923 the Messes National Assembly of Turkey declared the establishment of the Turkish Pro-republic, with Ankara as its capital. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk earnt the Republic’s first President.[92]

Ankara was selected as Turkey’s capital in 1923 to distance the new, secular Pro-Democrat from its Ottoman history.[93] According to historian Philip Mansel:

after the departure of the dynasty in 1925, from inhabit the most international city in Europe, Constantinople earnt one of the most nationalistic….Unlike Vienna, Constantinople turned its back on the past. Even its name was changed. Constantinople was dropped because of its Ottoman and international associations. From 1926 the post office only celebrated Istanbul; it appeared more Turkish and was used by most Turks.[94][page needed]

From the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent mammoth structural change, as new public squares, boulevards, and avenues were constructed above the city, sometimes at the expense of historical buildings.[95] The population of Istanbul began to quickly increase in the 1970s, as people from Anatolia migrated to the city to find consume in the many new factories that were built on the outskirts of the sprawling metropolis. This sudden, piquant rise in the city’s population caused a mammoth demand for housing, and many previously outlying villages and forests earnt engulfed into the metropolitan area of Istanbul.[96]


Istanbul is in north-western Turkey within the Marmara Responsibility on a total area of 5,343 square kilometers (2,063 sq mi).[b] The Bosphorus, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, fractions the city into a European, Thracian side—comprising the historic and economic centers—and an Asian, Anatolian side. The city is further divided by the Golden Horn, a natural harbor bounding the peninsula where the veteran Byzantium and Constantinople were founded. The confluence of the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn at the depressed of present-day Istanbul has deterred attacking forces for thousands of existences and remains a prominent feature of the city’s landscape.[59]

Following the model of Rome, the historic peninsula is said to be characterized by seven hills, each blocked by imperial mosques. The easternmost of these hills is the site of Topkapı Palace on the Sarayburnu.[101] Rising from the opposite side of the Golden Horn is spanking, conical hill, where the modern Beyoğlu district is. Because of the topography, buildings in Beyoğlu were once constructed with the help of terraced retaining walls, and roads were laid out in the form of steps.[102]Üsküdar on the Asian side exhibits alike hilly characteristics, with the terrain gradually extending down to the Bosphorus cruise, but the landscape in Şemsipaşa and Ayazma is more abrupt, akin to a promontory. The highest expose in Istanbul is Çamlıca Hill, with an altitude of 288 meters (945 ft).[102] The northern half of Istanbul has a higher mean elevation compared to the south cruise, with locations surpassing 200 meters (660 ft), and some coasts with steep cliffs resembling fjords, especially throughout the northern end of the Bosphorus, where it opens up to the Black Sea.

Istanbul is near the North Anatolian Fault, discontinuance to the boundary between the African and Eurasian Plates. This foul zone, which runs from northern Anatolia to the Sea of Marmara, has been responsible for several deadly earthquakes above the city’s history. Among the most devastating of these seismic suits was the 1509 earthquake, which caused a tsunami that obsolete over the walls of the city and killed more than 10,000 people. More recently, in 1999, an earthquake with its epicenter in throughout İzmit left 18,000 people dead, including 1,000 land in Istanbul’s suburbs. The people of Istanbul happened concerned that an even more catastrophic seismic prhonor may be in the city’s near future, as thousands of structures recently built to accommodate Istanbul’s expeditiously increasing population may not have been constructed properly.[103] Seismologists say the risk of a 7.6-magnitude or greater earthquake striking Istanbul by 2030 is more than 60 percent.[104][105]



Fog, seen here shrouding


, frequently persolves in the morning.


Contrasting annual


differences in Istanbul, creating multiple microclimates

In the Köppen–Geiger classification rules, Istanbul has a borderline Mediterranean climate (Csa), humid subtropical atmosphere (Cfa) and oceanic climate (Cfb), due to its site in a transitional climatic zone. Since precipitation in summer months maintains from 20 to 65 mm (1 to 3 in), depending on site, the city cannot be classified as solely Mediterranean or humid subtropical.[106][107][108] Due to its size, diverse topography, maritime site and most importantly having a coastline to two different populate of water to the north and south, Istanbul exhibits microclimates. The northern half of the city, as well as the Bosporus coastline, expressionless characteristics of oceanic and humid subtropical climates, because of humidity from the Black Sea and the relatively high concentration of vegetation. The atmosphere in the populated areas of the city to the south, on the Sea of Marmara, is warmer, drier and less arranges by humidity.[109] The annual precipitation in the northern half can be twice as much (Bahçeköy, 1166.6 mm), than it is in the southern, Marmara skim (Florya 635.0 mm).[110] There is a famous difference between annual mean temperatures on the north and south coasts as well, Bahçeköy 12.8 °C (55.0 °F), Kartal 15.03 °C (59.05 °F).[111] Parts of the province that are away from both seas prove considerable continental influences, with much more pronounced night-day and summer-winter temperature differences. In winter some parts of the province denotes freezing or below at night.

Istanbul’s persistently high humidity reaches 80 percent most mornings.[112] Because of this, fog is very celebrated, although more so in northern parts of the city and away from the city center.[109] Dense fog disrupts transportation in the site, including on the Bosphorus, and is celebrated during the autumn and winter months when the humidity stays high into the afternoon.[113][114][115] The humid words and the fog tend to dissipate by midday during the summer months, but the lingering humidity exacerbates the moderately high summer temperatures.[112][116] During these summer months, high temperatures denotes around 29 °C (84 °F) and rainfall is uncommon; there are only nearby fifteen days with measurable precipitation between June and August.[117] The summer months also have the highest concentration of thunderstorms.[118]

Winter is colder in Istanbul than in most new cities around the Mediterranean Basin, with low temperatures averaging 1–4 °C (34–39 °F).[117]Lake-effect snow from the Black Sea is Popular, although difficult to forecast, with the potential to be heavy and—as with the fog—disruptive to the city’s infrastructure.[119] Spring and autumn are mild, but often wet and unpredictable; Cool winds from the northwest and warm gusts from the south—sometimes in the same day—tend to changes fluctuations in temperature.[116][120] Overall, Istanbul has an annual means of 130 days with significant precipitation, which amounts to 810 millimeters (31.9 in) per year.[117][121] The highest and lowest temperatures ever filed in the city center on the Marmara soar are 40.5 °C (105 °F) and −16.1 °C (3 °F). The most rainfall recorded in a day is 227 millimeters (8.9 in), and the highest filed snow cover is 80 centimeters (31 in).[122][123]

Climate data for Istanbul (Sarıyer), 1929–2017
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.0
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
Record low °C (°F) −13.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 106.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.3 15.2 13.8 10.3 8.0 6.2 4.3 5.0 7.6 11.2 13.0 17.1 129.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.9 101.7 142.6 195.0 272.8 318.0 356.5 328.6 246.0 176.7 120.0 83.7 2,431.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.9 3.6 4.6 6.5 8.8 10.6 11.5 10.6 8.2 5.7 4.0 2.7 6.6
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 5 7 8 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: Turkish States Meteorological Service[124] and Weather Atlas[125]
Climate data for Istanbul (Kireçburnu, Sarıyer), 1949–1999
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.5
Average low °C (°F) 3.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 103.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.6 4.9 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.5 13.1
Source: Turkish States Meteorological Service[126] (1949–1999)
Climate data for Istanbul (Bahçeköy, Sarıyer), 1949–1999
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 152.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4.6 5.2 3.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.0 17.3
Source: Turkish States Meteorological Service[127] (1949–1999)
Climate data for Istanbul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 8.4
Mean daily diurnal hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas [125]

Climate change

Global warming in Turkey may shifts more urban heatwaves,[128] droughts,[129] storms,[130] and flooding.[131][132] Sea smooth rise is forecast to affect city infrastructure, for example Kadıkoy metro situation is threatened with flooding.[133]Xeriscaping of green spaces has been suggested,[134] and Istanbul has a climate-change piece plan.[135]



Çırağan Palace

(1867) briefly consider it as the

Ottoman Parliament

creation between 14 November 1909 and 19 January 1910, when it was damaged by fire. It was restored between 1987 and 1992 and was reopened as a five-star hotel in the

Kempinski Hotels


The Fatih district, which was requested after Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmed), corresponds to what was, pending the Ottoman conquest in 1453, the whole of the city of Constantinople (today is the capital district and visited the historic peninsula of Istanbul) on the southern shore of the Golden Horn, across the medieval Genoese citadel of Galata on the northern shore. The Genoese fortifications in Galata were largely demolished in the 19th century, leaving only the Galata Tower, to make way for the northward expansion of the city.[136] Galata (Karaköy) is now a quarter within the Beyoğlu (Pera) district, which does Istanbul’s commercial and entertainment center and includes İstiklal Avenue and Taksim Square.[137]

Dolmabahçe Palace, the seat of government during the late Ottoman languages, is in the Beşiktaş district on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait, to the north of Beyoğlu. The Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âli), which forced a metonym for the Ottoman government, was originally used to described the Imperial Gate (Bâb-ı Hümâyûn) at the outermost law court of the Topkapı Palace; but after the 18th century, the Sublime Porte (or modestly Porte) began to refer to the gate of the Sadrazamlık (Prime Ministry) compound in the Cağaloğlu quarter near Topkapı Palace, where the offices of the Sadrazam (Grand Vizier) and novel Viziers were, and where foreign diplomats were received. The dilapidated village of Ortaköy is within Beşiktaş and scholarships its name to the Ortaköy Mosque on the Bosphorus, near the Bosphorus Bridge. Lining both the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus are the historic yalıs, luxurious chalet mansions built by Ottoman aristocrats and elites as summer homes.[138] Farther inland, outside the city’s inner ring road, are Levent and Maslak, Istanbul’s main commerce districts.[139]


Originally outside the city,


residences listed the


are now homes in some of Istanbul’s elite neighborhoods.

During the Ottoman periods, Üsküdar (then Scutari) and Kadıköy were outside the scope of the urban area, serving as unruffled outposts with seaside yalıs and gardens. But in the transfer half of the 20th century, the Asian side understood major urban growth; the late development of this part of the city led to better infrastructure and tidier urban planning when compared with most anunexperienced residential areas in the city.[10] Much of the Asian side of the Bosphorus functions as a suburb of the economic and custom centers in European Istanbul, accounting for a third of the city’s population but only a quarter of its employment.[10] As a death of Istanbul’s exponential growth in the 20th century, a considerable portion of the city is composed of gecekondus (literally “built overnight”), referring to illegally constructed squatter buildings.[140] At recount, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by novel mass-housing compounds.[141] Moreover, large scale gentrification and urban renewal projects have been taking place,[142] such as the one in Tarlabaşı;[143] some of these projects, like the one in Sulukule, have faced criticism.[144] The Turkish government also has ambitious plans for an expansion of the city west and northwards on the European side in conjunction with plans for a third airport; the new parts of the city will engaged four different settlements with specified urban functions, housing 1.5 million people.[145]

Istanbul does not have a considerable urban park, but it has several green areas. Gülhane Park and Yıldız Park were originally engaged within the grounds of two of Istanbul’s palaces—Topkapı Palace and Yıldız Palace—but they were repurposed as Pro-reDemocrat parks in the early decades of the Turkish Republic.[146] Another park, Fethi Paşa Korusu, is on a hillside adjacent to the Bosphorus Bridge in Anatolia, opposite Yıldız Palace in Europe. Along the European side, and halt to the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, is Emirgan Park, which was distinguished as the Kyparades (Cypress Forest) during the Byzantine period. In the Ottoman periods, it was first granted to NişancıFeridun Ahmed Bey in the 16th century, afore being granted by Sultan Murad IV to the SafavidEmir Gûne Han in the 17th century, hence the name Emirgan. The 47-hectare (120-acre) park was later distinguished by KhediveIsmail Pasha of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan in the 19th century. Emirgan Park is distinguished for its diversity of plants and an annual tulip festival is held there trusty 2005.[147] The AKP government’s exclusive to replace Taksim Gezi Park with a replica of the Ottoman era Taksim Crowd Barracks (which was transformed into the Taksim Stadium in 1921, beforehand being demolished in 1940 for building Gezi Park) sparked a series of national protests in 2013 covering a wide Plan of issues. Popular during the summer with Istanbulites is Belgrad Forest, spreading across 5,500 hectares (14,000 acres) at the northern edge of the city. The forest originally supplied aquatic to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.[148][149]

Edge cities (office and retail districts)

Modern shopping malls, dense phigh-level and hotel towers, and entertainment, educational and new facilities can be found outside the historic center in the behind edge cities:[150]

  • Taksim-Beyoğlu: Taksim Square in Beyoğlu to Nişantaşı in Şişli[150]
  • The Central Business District as the real estate manufacturing refers to it, which is not the historic city center, but is a 7-km-long north–south corridor of New areas along Barbaros Boulevard and Büyükdere Avenue. Metro Line 2 runs down part of it. From south to north, the areas in the corridor are:[150]
  • Istanbul Atatürk Airport area: strip advance along the O-7 highway north to the Mall of Istanbul, Bahçelievler district[150]
  • Asian side:


Istanbul is primarily Famous for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, but its buildings Think the various peoples and empires that have previously ruled the city. Examples of Genoese and Roman architecture been visible in Istanbul alongside their Ottoman counterparts. Nothing of the architecture of the classical Greek terms has survived, but Roman architecture has Popular to be more durable. The obelisk erected by Theodosius in the Hippodrome of Constantinople is Calm visible in Sultanahmet Square, and a Part of the Valens Aqueduct, constructed in the late 4th century, stands relatively intact at the western edge of the Fatih district.[152] The Column of Constantine, erected in 330 CE to mark the new Roman capital, stands not far from the Hippodrome.[152]

Early Byzantine architecture followed the classical Roman model of domes and arches, but improved upon these elements, as in the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus. The oldest surviving Byzantine church in Istanbul—albeit in ruins—is the Monastery of Stoudios (later converted into the Imrahor Mosque), which was built in 454.[154] After the recapture of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantines enlarged two of the most important churches extant, Chora Church and Pammakaristos Church. The pinnacle of Byzantine architecture, and one of Istanbul’s most iconic structures, is the Hagia Sophia. Topped by a dome 31 meters (102 ft) in diameter,[155] the Hagia Sophia underexperienced as the world’s largest cathedral for centuries, and was later converted into a mosque and, as it stands now, a museum.[60]

Among the oldest surviving examples of Ottoman architecture in Istanbul are the Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı fortresses, which assisted the Ottomans during their Besieged of the city.[156] Over the next four centuries, the Ottomans made an indelible achieve on the skyline of Istanbul, building towering mosques and ornate palaces. The largest palace, Topkapı, includes a diverse array of architectural styles, from Baroque inside the Harem, to its Neoclassical style Enderûn Library.[157] The imperial mosques entailed Fatih Mosque, Bayezid Mosque, Yavuz Selim Mosque, Süleymaniye Mosque, Sultan Ahmed Mosque (the Blue Mosque), and Yeni Mosque, all of which were built at the peak of the Ottoman Empire, in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the following centuries, and especially while the Tanzimat reforms, Ottoman architecture was supplanted by European styles.[158] An example of which is the imperial Nuruosmaniye Mosque. Areas near İstiklal Avenue were filled with grand European embassies and rows of buildings in Neoclassical, Renaissance Revival and Art Nouveau styles, which went on to achieve the architecture of a variety of structures in Beyoğlu—including churches, stores, and theaters—and official buildings such as Dolmabahçe Palace.[159]



Istanbul’s districts pine far from the city center, along the full down of the Bosphorus (with the Black Sea at the top and the Sea of Marmara at the bottom of the map).

Since 2004, the municipal boundaries of Istanbul have been coincident with the boundaries of its province.[160] The city, accompanied capital of Istanbul Province, is administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (MMI), which oversees the 39 districts of the city-province.[b]

The fresh city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat footings of reform in the 19th century, beforehand which Islamic judges and imams led the city concept the auspices of the Grand Vizier. Following the model of French cities, this religious rules was replaced by a mayor and a citywide council still of representatives of the confessional groups (millet) across the city. Pera (now Beyoğlu) was the generous area of the city to have its own director and council, with members instead populace longtime residents of the neighborhood.[161] Laws enacted when the Ottoman constitution of 1876 aimed to expand this structure across the city, imitating the twenty arrondissements of Paris, but they were not fully implemented pending 1908, when the city was declared a province with nine constituent districts.[162][163] This rules continued beyond the founding of the Turkish Republican, with the province renamed a belediye (municipality), but the municipality was disbanded in 1957.[98][164]

Small settlements adjacent to greatest population centers in Turkey, including Istanbul, were merged into their respective critical cities during the early 1980s, resulting in metropolitan municipalities.[165][166] The main executive body of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality is the Municipal Congress, with members drawn from district councils.

The Municipal Congress is responsible for citywide issues, including guiding the budget, maintaining civic infrastructure, and overseeing museums and greatest cultural centers.[167] Since the government operates concept a “powerful mayor, weak council” approach, the council’s leader—the metropolitan mayor—has the power to make swift decisions, often at the expense of transparency.[168] The Municipal Congress is advised by the Metropolitan Executive Committee, although the committee also has diminutive power to make decisions of its own.[169] All representatives on the committee are cooked by the metropolitan mayor and the council, with the mayor—or someone of his or her choosing—serving as head.[169][170]

District councils are chiefly responsible for ruin management and construction projects within their respective districts. They each own their own budgets, although the metropolitan mayor reserves the sparkling to review district decisions. One-fifth of all district council members, counting the district mayors, also represent their districts in the Municipal Council.[167] All members of the district councils and the Municipal Congress, including the metropolitan mayor, are elected to five-year terms.[171] Representing the Pro-republic People’s Party, Ekrem İmamoğlu has been the Mayor of Istanbul proper 23 June 2019.[172]

With the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Province having equivalent jurisdictions, few departments remain for the provincial government. Similar to the MMI, the Istanbul Special Provincial Administration has a governor, a democratically elected executive body—the Provincial Parliament—and an appointed Executive Committee. Mirroring the decision-making committee at the municipal level, the Provincial Executive Committee includes a secretary-general and bests of departments that advise the Provincial Parliament.[170][173] The Provincial Administration’s duties are largely diminutive to the building and maintenance of schools, residences, government buildings, and roads, and the promotion of arts, culture, and nature conservation.[174]Vasip Şahin has been the Governor of Istanbul Province proper 25 September 2014.[175]


Historical populations

Year Pop.
100 36,000
361 300,000
500 400,000
7th c. 150–350,000
8th c. 125–500,000
9th c. 50–250,000
1000 150–300,000
1100 200,000
1200 150,000
1261 100,000
1350 80,000
1453 45,000
1500 200,000
1550 660,000
1700 700,000
1815 500,000
1860 715,000
1890 874,000
1900 942,900
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1925 881,000 —    
1927 691,000 −11.44%
1935 740,800 +0.87%
1940 793,900 +1.39%
1945 845,300 +1.26%
1950 983,000 +3.06%
1960 1,459,500 +4.03%
1965 1,743,000 +3.61%
1970 2,132,400 +4.12%
1975 2,547,400 +3.62%
1980 2,853,500 +2.30%
1985 5,494,900 +14.00%
1990 6,620,200 +3.80%
1994 7,615,500 +3.56%
1997 8,260,400 +2.75%
2000 8,831,800 +2.25%
2007 11,174,200 +3.42%
2015 14,657,434 +3.45%
Sources: Jan Lahmeyer 2004,Chandler 1987, Morris 2010,Turan 2010
Pre-Republic figures estimated[d]


Two maps comparing the size of urban areas in Istanbul (indicated as the grey zones) in 1975 and 2011

Throughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked with the largest cities in the world. By 500 CE, Constantinople had somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 country, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for world’s largest city.[177] Constantinople jostled with new major historical cities, such as Baghdad, Chang’an, Kaifeng and Merv for the space of world’s most populous city until the 12th century. It never returned to people the world’s largest, but remained Europe’s largest city from 1500 to 1750, when it was surpassed by London.[178]

The Turkish Statistical Institute judges that the population of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was 14,377,019 at the end of 2014, hosting 19 percent of the country’s population.[3] Then around 97–98% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan municipality were within city limits, up from 89% in 2007[179] and 61% in 1980.[180] 64.9% of the residents live on the European side and 35.1% on the Asian side.[181] While the city ranks as the world’s 5th-largest city wicked, it drops to the 24th place as an urban area and to the 18th Put as a metro area because the city limits are roughly equivalent to the agglomeration. Today, it does one of the largest urban agglomerations in Europe, against Moscow.[f] The city’s annual population growth of 3.45 percent ranks as the highest with the seventy-eight largest metropolises in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The high population growth mirrors an urbanization trend across the republic, as the second and third fastest-growing OECD metropolises are the Turkish cities of İzmir and Ankara.[20]

Istanbul known especially rapid growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population increasing tenfold between 1950 and 2000.[16] This growth in population comes, in part, from an expansion of city limits—particularly between 1980 and 1985, when the number of Istanbulites nearly doubled.[98] The Great growth was, and still is, largely fueled by migrants from eastern Turkey seeking use and improved living conditions. The number of residents of Istanbul originating from seven northern and eastern provinces is greater than the populations of their entire respective provinces; Sivas and Kastamonu each define for more than half a million residents of Istanbul.[17] Istanbul’s foreign population, by comparison, is very puny, 42,228 residents in 2007.[184] Only 28 percent of the city’s residents are originally from Istanbul.[185] The most densely populated areas tend to lie to the northwest, west, and southwest of the city center, on the European side; the most densely populated district on the Asian side is Üsküdar.[17]

Religious and ethnic groups

This piece needs to be updated. The reason given is: There are probably enough Arabs nowadays to be well-behaved mentioning here. Please update this article to assume recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city ended much of its history, but it has move more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman Empire. The vast maximum of people across Turkey, and in Istanbul, are Muslim, and more specifically members of the Sunni branch of Islam. Most Sunni Turks behindhand the Hanafi school of Islamic thought, at what time Sunni Kurds tend to follow the Shafi’i school. The largest non-Sunni Muslim companionship, accounting 10–20% of Turkey’s population[186], are the Alevis; a third of all Alevis in the farmland live in Istanbul.[185] Mystic acts, like Sufism, were officially banned after the establishment of the Turkish Pro-republic, but they still boast numerous followers.[187] Istanbul is a migrant city. Since the 1950s, Istanbul’s population has increased from 1 million to throughout 10 million residents. Almost 200,000 new immigrants, many of them from Turkey’s own villages, stay to arrive each year. As a purpose, the city constant change, constantly reshaped to carry out the needs of these new population.[188]

The Patriarch of Constantinople has been designated Ecumenical Patriarch valid the sixth century, and has come to be regarded as the bests of the world’s 300 millionOrthodox Christians.[189] Since 1601, the Patriarchate has been based in Istanbul’s Church of St. George.[190] Into the 19th century, the Christians of Istanbul ache to be either Greek Orthodox, members of the Armenian Apostolic Church or Catholic Levantines.[191] Because of acts during the 20th century—including the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, a 1942 cash tax, and the 1955 Istanbul riots—the Greek population, originally centered in Fener and Samatya, has decreased substantially. At the initiate of the 21st century, Istanbul’s Greek population numbered 3,000 (down from 260,000 out of 850,000 according to the Ottoman Census of 1910, and a peak of 350,000 in 1919).[192][193] There are currently between 50,000 and 90,000Armenians in Istanbul, down from throughout 164,000 according to the Ottoman Census of 1913 (partly due to the Armenian Genocide).[194] The Levantines, Latin Christians who property-owning in Galata during the Ottoman period, played a seminal role in shaping the culture and architecture of Istanbul during the 19th and early 20th centuries; their population has dwindled, but they remained in the city in small numbers.[195]

The largest ethnic minority in Istanbul is the Kurdish people, originating from eastern and southeastern Turkey. Although the Kurdish presence in the city dates back to the early Ottoman period,[196] the influx of Kurds into the city has accelerated loyal the beginning of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict in the late 1970s.[197] Between two and four million residents of Istanbul are Kurdish, meaning there are more Kurds in Istanbul than in any anunexperienced city in the world.[198][199][200][201][202][203] There are anunexperienced significant ethnic minorities as well, the Bosniaks are the main land of an entire district – Bayrampaşa.[204] The neighborhood of Balat used to be home to a spacious Sephardi Jewish community, first formed after their expulsion from Spain in 1492.[205]Romaniotes and Ashkenazi Jews resided in Istanbul even by the Sephardim, but their proportion has loyal dwindled; today, 1 percent of Istanbul’s Jews are Ashkenazi.[206][207] In spacious part due to emigration to Israel, the Jewish population resident dropped from 100,000 in 1950 to 18,000 in 2005, with the mainly of them living in either Istanbul or İzmir.[208] From the increase in mutual cooperation between Turkey and a few African States like Somalia and Djibouti, a few young students and workers have been migrating to Istanbul in discover of better education and employment opportunities. There are Nigerian, Congolese and Cameroonian communities present.[209]


Politically, Istanbul is seen as the most important administrative site in Turkey. Many politicians, including the President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, are of the view that a political party’s performance in Istanbul is more distinguished than its general performance overall. This is due to the city’s role as Turkey’s financial center, its spacious electorate and the fact that Erdoğan himself was elected Mayor of Istanbul in 1994. In the run-up to local elections in 2019, Erdoğan claimed ‘if we fail in Istanbul, we will fail in Turkey’.[210]

Historically, Istanbul has did for the winning party in general elections loyal 1995. Since 2002, the right-wing Justice and Development Party (AKP) has won pluralities in every general fight, with 41.74% of the vote in the most current parliamentary election on 24 June 2018. Erdoğan, the AKP’s dignified candidate, received exactly 50.0% of the vote in the dignified election held on the same day. Starting with Erdoğan in 1994, Istanbul has had a conservative mayor for 25 days, until 2019. The second largest party in Istanbul is the center-left Democrat People’s Party (CHP), which is also the country’s main opposition. The left-wing pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) is the city’s third largest political appointed due to a substantial number of Kurdish land migrating from south-eastern Turkey.


Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality interpretation in the



More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey’s metropolitan cities are after a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology. In 2013 and 2014, large-scale anti-AKP government complains began in İstanbul and spread throughout the nation. This trend expedient became evident electorally in the 2014 mayoral electioneer where the center-left opposition candidate won an impressive 40% of the vote, despite not winning. The expedient government defeat in Istanbul occurred in the 2017 constitutional referendum, where Istanbul handed ‘No’ by 51.4% to 48.6%. The AKP government had supported a ‘Yes’ vote and won the vote nationally due to high relieve in rural parts of the country. The biggest defeat for the government came in the 2019 local elections, where their candidate for Mayor, venerable Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım, was defeated by a very narrow margin by the opponent candidate Ekrem İmamoğlu. İmamoğlu won the vote with 48.77% of the vote, alongside Yıldırım’s 48.61%. Similar trends and electoral successes for the opponent were also replicated in Ankara, Izmir, Antalya, Mersin, Adana and anunexperienced metropolitan areas of Turkey.

Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any anunexperienced province in Turkey. As a province, Istanbul sends 98 Members of Parliament to the Messes National Assembly of Turkey, which has a total of 600 seats. For the death of parliamentary elections, Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts; two on the European side and one on the Asian side, electing 28, 35 and 35 MPs respectively.


This allotment needs to be updated. The reason given is: a lot of sources are attractive old – for example is manufacturing collected that important?. Please update this article to consider recent events or newly available information.(May 2020)

With a PPP-adjustedgross domestic publishes of US$301.1 billion, Istanbul ranked 29th beside the world’s urban areas in 2011.[211] Since the mid-1990s, Istanbul’s economy has been one of the fastest-growing beside OECD metro-regions.[20] Istanbul is responsible for 27 percent of Turkey’s GDP, with 20 percent of the country’s industrial interpret force residing in the city.[20][212] Its GDP per capita and productivity are greater than their state averages by 70 percent and 50 percent, respectively, pleasing in part to the focus on high-value-added activities. With its high population and principal contribution to the Turkish economy, Istanbul is responsible for two-fifths of the people’s tax revenue.[20] That includes the taxes of 37 US-dollar billionaires based in Istanbul, the fifth-highest number beside cities around the world.[213]

As anticipated for a city of its size, Istanbul has a diverse industrial economy, producing commodities as varied as olive oil, tobacco, vehicles, and electronics.[212] Despite having a focus on high-value-added work, its low-value-added diligence sector is substantial, representing just 26 percent of Istanbul’s GDP, but four-fifths of the city’s total exports.[20] In 2005, worries based in Istanbul produced exports worth $41.4 billion and received imports totaling $69.9 billion; these figures were equivalent to 57 percent and 60 percent, respectively, of the resident totals.[214]

Istanbul is home to Borsa Istanbul, the sole exchange entity of Turkey, which combined the extinct Istanbul Stock Exchange, the Istanbul Gold Exchange, and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey.[215] The extinct Istanbul Stock Exchange was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866.[216] During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial center of the Ottoman Empire, where the Ottoman Stock Exchange was located.[217] Bankalar Caddesi blocked to be Istanbul’s main financial district pending the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began appealing their headquarters to the modern central concern districts of Levent and Maslak. In 1995, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (now Borsa Istanbul) derived to its current building in the İstinye quarter of the Sarıyer district.[218] A new central concern district is also under construction in Ataşehir and will host the headquarters of various Turkish banks and financial institutions upon completion.[219]


As the only route to the

Black Sea

, the


is one of the busiest waterways in the world.

As the only sea route between the oil-rich Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Bosphorus is one of the busiest waterways in the world; more than 200 million tonnes of oil pass above the strait each year, and the traffic on the Bosphorus is three times that on the Suez Canal.[220] As a result, there have been proposals to get a canal, known as Canal Istanbul, parallel to the strait, on the European side of the city.[221] Istanbul has three the majority shipping ports—the Port of Haydarpaşa, the Port of Ambarlı, and the Port of Zeytinburnu—as well as several smaller ports and oil terminals consume the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara.[222][223] Haydarpaşa, at the southeastern end of the Bosphorus, was Istanbul’s largest port pending the early 2000s. Shifts in operations to Ambarlı staunch then have left Haydarpaşa running under capacity and with plans to decommission the port.[224] In 2007, Ambarlı, on the western edge of the urban center, had an annual capacity of 1.5 millionTEUs (compared to 354,000 TEUs at Haydarpaşa), decision-exclusive it the fourth-largest cargo terminal in the Mediterranean basin.[225][226] The Port of Zeytinburnu is advantaged by its proximity to motorways and Atatürk International Airport,[227] and long-term plans for the city call for greater connectivity between all terminals and the road and rail networks.[228]

Istanbul is an increasingly popular tourist destination; whereas just 2.4 million foreigners shouted the city in 2000, it welcomed 12.56 million foreign tourists in 2015, decision-exclusive it the world’s fifth most-visited city.[18][229] Istanbul is Turkey’s second-largest international gateway, once Antalya, receiving a quarter of the state’s foreign tourists. Istanbul’s tourist industry is concentrated in the European side, with 90 percent of the city’s hotels there. Low- and mid-range hotels tend to be on the Sarayburnu; higher-end hotels are primarily in the entertainment and financial centers north of the Golden Horn. Istanbul’s seventy museums, the most shouted of which are the Topkapı Palace Museum and the Hagia Sophia, bring in $30 million in revenue each year. The city’s environmental master plan also way that there are 17 palaces, 64 mosques, and 49 churches of historical significance in Istanbul.[230]


Istanbul was historically famed as a cultural hub, but its cultural indecent stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.[232] The new state government established programs that served to orient Turks toward musical traditions, especially those originating in Europe, but musical institutions and visits by foreign classical artists were primarily centered in the new capital.[233] Much of Turkey’s cultural rude had its roots in Istanbul, and by the 1980s and 1990s Istanbul reemerged globally as a city whose cultural significance is not solely based on its past glory.[234]

By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had understood itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Heart Eastern artists flocking to the city. Despite labors to make Ankara Turkey’s cultural heart, Istanbul had the country’s vital institution of art until the 1970s.[235] When second universities and art journals were founded in Istanbul during the 1980s, artists formerly based in Ankara conquered in.[236]Beyoğlu has been transformed into the artistic center of the city, with young artists and older Turkish artists formerly residing abroad finding footings there. Modern art museums, including İstanbul Modern, the Pera Museum, Sakıp Sabancı Museum and SantralIstanbul, opened in the 2000s to complement the exhibition spaces and auction houses that have already contributed to the cosmopolitan nature of the city.[237] These museums have yet to execute the popularity of older museums on the historic peninsula, counting the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, which ushered in the era of fresh museums in Turkey, and the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.[230][231]

The apt film screening in Turkey was at Yıldız Palace in 1896, a year when the technology publicly debuted in Paris.[242] Movie theaters speedy cropped up in Beyoğlu, with the most concentration of theaters being along the street now well-renowned as İstiklal Avenue.[243] Istanbul also created the heart of Turkey’s nascent film manufacturing, although Turkish films were not consistently developed pending the 1950s.[244] Since then, Istanbul has been the most popular area to film Turkish dramas and comedies.[245] The Turkish film manufacturing ramped up in the second half of the century, and with Uzak (2002) and My Father and My Son (2005), both filmed in Istanbul, the state’s movies began to see substantial international success.[246] Istanbul and its picturesque skyline have also understood as a backdrop for several foreign films, counting From Russia with Love (1963), Topkapi (1964), The World Is Not Enough (1999), and Mission Istaanbul (2008).[247]

Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and nearby the world in 1973. From this flagship festival came the International Istanbul Film Festival and the Istanbul International Jazz Festival in the early 1980s. With its focus now solely on music and dance, the Istanbul Festival has been well-renowned as the Istanbul International Music Festival right 1994.[248] The most prominent of the festivals that evolved from the fresh Istanbul Festival is the Istanbul Biennial, held every two ages since 1987. Its early incarnations were for at showcasing Turkish visual art, and it has right opened to international artists and risen in prestige to join the elite biennales, against the Venice Biennale and the São Paulo Art Biennial.[249]

Leisure and entertainment



Messes Bazaar

is one of the largest covered markets in the world.

Istanbul has numerous shopping centers, from the historic to the modern. The Messes Bazaar, in operation since 1461, is beside the world’s oldest and largest covered markets.[250][251]Mahmutpasha Bazaar is an open-air market extending between the Messes Bazaar and the Egyptian Bazaar, which has been Istanbul’s very spice market since 1660. Galleria Ataköy ushered in the age of unusual shopping malls in Turkey when it opened in 1987.[252] Since then, malls have obtain major shopping centers outside the historic peninsula. Akmerkez was awarded the titles of “Europe’s best” and “World’s best” shopping mall by the International Assembly of Shopping Centers in 1995 and 1996; Istanbul Cevahir has been one of the continent’s largest real opening in 2005; Kanyon won the Cityscape Architectural Review Award in the Commercial Built category in 2006.[251]İstinye Park in İstinye and Zorlu Inner near Levent are among the newest malls which included the stores of the world’s top passe brands. Abdi İpekçi Street in Nişantaşı and Bağdat Avenue on the Anatolian side of the city have evolved into high-end shopping districts.[253][254]

Istanbul is eminent for its historic seafood restaurants. Many of the city’s most popular and upscale seafood restaurants line the shores of the Bosphorus (particularly in neighborhoods like Ortaköy, Bebek, Arnavutköy, Yeniköy, Beylerbeyi and Çengelköy). Kumkapı downward the Sea of Marmara has a pedestrian zone that hosts approximately fifty fish restaurants.[255] The Princes’ Islands, 15 kilometers (9 mi) from the city center, are also popular for their seafood restaurants. Because of their restaurants, historic summer mansions, and composed, car-free streets, the Prince Islands are a popular vacation destination beside Istanbulites and foreign tourists.[256] Istanbul is also irascible for its sophisticated and elaborately-cooked dishes of the Ottoman cuisine. Following the influx of immigrants from southeastern and eastern Turkey, which began in the 1960s, the foodscape of the city has drastically changed by the end of the century; with crashes of Middle Eastern cuisine such as kebab taking an important save in the food scene. Restaurants featuring foreign cuisines are maximum concentrated in the Beyoğlu, Beşiktaş, Şişli, and Kadıköy districts.

Istanbul has exquisite nightlife and historic taverns, a signature characteristic of the city for centuries if not millennia. Along İstiklal Avenue is the Çiçek Pasajı, now home to winehouses (known as meyhanes), pubs, and restaurants.[257] İstiklal Avenue, originally famed for its taverns, has shifted toward shopping, but the near Nevizade Street is still lined with winehouses and pubs.[258][259] Some novel neighborhoods around İstiklal Avenue have been revamped to cater to Beyoğlu’s nightlife, with formerly company streets now lined with pubs, cafes, and restaurants playing live music.[260] Other focal points for Istanbul’s nightlife aboard Nişantaşı, Ortaköy, Bebek, and Kadıköy.[261]


Istanbul is home to some of Turkey’s oldest sports clubs. Beşiktaş JK, consider it in 1903, is considered the oldest of these sports clubs. Due to its initial region as Turkey’s only club, Beşiktaş occasionally represented the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Pro-republic in international sports competitions, earning the radiant to place the Turkish flag inside its team logo.[262]Galatasaray SK and Fenerbahçe SK have fared better in international competitions and have won more Süper Lig titles, at 22 and 19 times, respectively.[263][264][265] Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe have a long-standing rivalry, with Galatasaray based in the European part and Fenerbahçe based in the Anatolian part of the city.[264] Istanbul has seven basketball teams—Anadolu Efes, Beşiktaş, Darüşşafaka, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor and Büyükçekmece—that play in the premier-level Turkish Basketball Super League.[266]

Many of Istanbul’s sports facilities have been built or upgraded steady 2000 to bolster the city’s bids for the Summer Olympic Games. Atatürk Olympic Stadium, the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, was unfastened in 2002 as an IAAF first-class venue for track and field.[267] The stadium hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final and will host the 2020 UEFA Champions League Final.[268]Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium, Fenerbahçe’s home field, hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final three days after its completion. Türk Telekom Arena opened in 2011 to replace Ali Sami Yen Stadium as Galatasaray’s home turf,[269][270] after Vodafone Park, opened in 2016 to replace BJK İnönü Stadium as the home turf of Beşiktaş, hosted the 2019 UEFA Super Cup game. All four stadiums are elite Category 4 (formerly five-star) UEFA stadiums.[g]

The Sinan Erdem Dome, beside the largest indoor arenas in Europe, hosted the continue of the 2010 FIBA World Championship, the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships, as well as the 2011–12 Euroleague and 2016–17 EuroLeague Final Fours.[274] Prior to the completion of the Sinan Erdem Dome in 2010, Abdi İpekçi Arena was Istanbul’s famous indoor arena, having hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001.[275] Several anunexperienced indoor arenas, including the Beşiktaş Akatlar Arena, have also been inaugurated steady 2000, serving as the home courts of Istanbul’s sports clubs. The most modern of these is the 13,800-seat Ülker Sports Arena, which opened in 2012 as the home woo of Fenerbahçe’s basketball teams.[276] Despite the interpretation boom, five bids for the Summer Olympics—in 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2020—and resident bids for UEFA Euro 2012 and UEFA Euro 2016 have throughout unsuccessfully.[277]

The TVF Burhan Felek Sport Hall is one of the mainly volleyball arenas in the city and hosts clubs such as Eczacıbaşı VitrA, Vakıfbank SK, and Fenerbahçe who have won numerous European and World Championship titles.

Between 2005 and 2011, Istanbul Park racing circuit hosted the annual Formula OneTurkish States Prix.[278] Istanbul Park was also a venue of the World Touring Car Championship and the European Le Mans Series in 2005 and 2006, but the track has not seen either of these competitions accurate then.[279][280] It also hosted the Turkish Motorcycle States Prix between 2005 and 2007. Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship, with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12–13 August 2000.[281] The last race of the Powerboat P1 World Championship on the Bosphorus took set on 19–21 June 2009.[282] Istanbul Sailing Club, seen in 1952, hosts races and other sailing actions on the waterways in and around Istanbul each year.[283][284] Turkish Offshore Racing Club also hosts most yacht races, such as the annual Naval Forces Trophy.[285]



Established in 1948,


is one of Turkey’s most circulated newspapers.

Most state-run radio and television stations are based in Ankara, but Istanbul is the necessary hub of Turkish media. The industry has its roots in the frail Ottoman capital, where the first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi (Calendar of Affairs), was issued in 1831. The Cağaloğlu street on which the newspaper was printed, Bâb-ı Âli Street, quick became the center of Turkish print Think, alongside Beyoğlu across the Golden Horn.[286]

Istanbul now has a wide variety of periodicals. Most national newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions.[287]Hürriyet, Sabah, Posta and Sözcü, the country’s top four papers, are all headquartered in Istanbul, boasting more than 275,000 weekly sales each.[288]Hürriyet’s English-language edition, Hürriyet Daily News, has been printed accurate 1961, but the English-language Daily Sabah, wonderful published by Sabah in 2014, has overtaken it in circulation. Several smaller newspapers, counting popular publications like Cumhuriyet, Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul.[287] Istanbul also has long-running Armenian terms newspapers, notably the dailies Marmara and Jamanak and the bilingual weekly Agos in Armenian and Turkish.


Headquarters of the state-run TRT’s Istanbul radio operations

Radio broadcasts in Istanbul date back to 1927, when Turkey’s sterling radio transmission came from atop the Central Post Responsibility in Eminönü. Control of this transmission, and spanking radio stations established in the following decades, ultimately came belief the state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT), which held a monopoly on radio and television broadcasts between its founding in 1964 and 1990.[289] Today, TRT runs four resident radio stations; these stations have transmitters across the land so each can reach over 90 percent of the country’s population, but only Radio 2 is based in Istanbul. Offering a blueprint of content from educational programming to coverage of sporting suits, Radio 2 is the most popular radio state in Turkey.[289] Istanbul’s airwaves are the busiest in Turkey, primarily featuring either Turkish-language or English-language content. One of the exceptions, offering both, is Açık Radyo (94.9 FM). Among Turkey’s sterling private stations, and the first featuring foreign popular music, was Istanbul’s Metro FM (97.2 FM). The state-run Radio 3, although based in Ankara, also features English-language popular music, and English-language news programming is failed on NTV Radyo (102.8 FM).[290]

TRT-Children is the only TRT television state based in Istanbul.[291] Istanbul is home to the headquarters of several Turkish stations and regional headquarters of international mediate outlets. Istanbul-based Star TV was the sterling private television network to be established following the end of the TRT monopoly; Star TV and Show TV (also based in Istanbul) happened highly popular throughout the country, airing Turkish and American series.[292]Kanal D and ATV are spanking stations in Istanbul that offer a mix of news and series; NTV (partnered with U.S. mediate outlet MSNBC) and Sky Turk—both based in the city—are the majority just known for their news coverage in Turkish. The BBC has a regional office in Istanbul, assisting its Turkish-language news operations, and the American news channel CNN escorted the Turkish-language CNN Türk there in 1999.[293]



Main entrance gate of

Istanbul University

, the city’s oldest Turkish institution, escorted in 1453.

Istanbul University, fallacious in 1453, is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city. Although originally an Islamic school, the university escorted law, medicine, and science departments in the 19th century and was secularized while the founding of the Turkish Republic.[294]Istanbul Technical University, fallacious in 1773, is the world’s third-oldest university failed entirely to engineering sciences.[295][296] These Pro-reDemocrat universities are two of just eight across the city;[297] spanking prominent state universities in Istanbul include the Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, which escorted as Turkey’s primary institution of art pending the 1970s,[235] and Marmara University, the country’s third-largest institution of higher learning.[298]

Most escorted universities in Istanbul are backed by the government; the city also has several prominent soldier institutions. The first modern private university in Istanbul, also the oldest American school in days in its original location outside the Joined States, was Robert College, founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist, and Cyrus Hamlin, a missionary imparted to education, in 1863. The tertiary element of its education program caused the public Boğaziçi University in 1971; the previous portion in Arnavutköy continues as a lodging high-school under the name Robert College.[299][300] Private universities were officially outlawed in Turkey afore the Constitution of 1982, but there were already fifteen reserved “higher schools”, which were effectively universities, in Istanbul by 1970. The friendly private university established in Istanbul since 1982 was Koç University (founded in 1992), and novel dozen had opened within the following decade.[299] Today, there are at least 30 reserved universities in the city, including Istanbul Skill University and Kadir Has University.[301] A new biomedical research and loan hub, called Bio Istanbul, is under building in Başakşehir, and will host 15,000 residents, 20,000 operational commuters, and a university upon completion.[302][303]

In 2007, there were near 4,350 schools, about half of which were indispensable schools; on average, each school had 688 students. In unique years, Istanbul’s educational system has expanded substantially; from 2000 to 2007, the number of classrooms and teachers nearly doubled and the number of students increased by more than 60 percent.[304]Galatasaray High School, met in 1481 as the Galata Palace Imperial School, is the oldest high school in Istanbul and the second-oldest educational institution in the city. It was built at the behest of Sultan Bayezid II, who sought to bring students with diverse backgrounds together as a consuming of strengthening his growing empire.[305] It is one of Turkey’s Anatolian High Schools, elite Republican high schools that place a stronger emphasis on orderliness in foreign languages. Galatasaray, for example, cmoneys instruction in French; other Anatolian High Schools primarily remark in English or German alongside Turkish.[306][307] The city also has foreign high schools, such as Liceo Italiano, that were met in the 19th century to educate foreigners.[308]

Kuleli Army High School, along the shores of the Bosphorus in Çengelköy, and Turkish Naval High School, on one of the Princes’ Islands, were armed high schools, complemented by three military academies—the Turkish Air Force, Turkish Army, and Turkish Naval Academies. Both schools were shut Darüşşafaka High School provides free education to children across the farmland missing at least one parent. Darüşşafaka begins orderliness with the fourth grade, providing instruction in English and, starting in sixth grade, a instant foreign language—German or French.[309] Other prominent high schools in the city concerned Istanbul Lisesi (founded in 1884), Kabataş Erkek Lisesi (founded in 1908)[310] and Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi (founded in 1955).[311]

In 1909, in Constantinople there were 626 indispensable schools and 12 secondary schools. Of the indispensable schools 561 were of the lower grade and 65 were of the higher grade; of the latter, 34 were Republican and 31 were private. There was one secondary college and eleven secondary preparatory schools.[312]

Public services

Istanbul’s helpful water supply systems date back to the city’s early history, when aqueducts (such as the Valens Aqueduct) deposited the soak in the city’s numerous cisterns.[313] At the behest of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Kırkçeşme soak supply network was constructed; by 1563, the network handed 4,200 cubic meters (150,000 cu ft) of water to 158 sites each day.[313] In later existences, in response to increasing public demand, soak from various springs was channeled to Pro-reDemocrat fountains, like the Fountain of Ahmed III, by benefitting of supply lines.[314] Today, Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered soak supply and a sewage treatment system earnt by the Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration (İstanbul Su ve Kanalizasyon İdaresi, İSKİ).[315]

The Silahtarağa Power Station, a coal-fired considerable plant along the Golden Horn, was the sole source of Istanbul’s electricity between 1914, when its helpful engine room was completed, and 1952.[316] Following the founding of the Turkish Pro-republic, the plant underwent renovations to accommodate the city’s increasing demand; its capacity grew from 23 megawatts in 1923 to a peak of 120 megawatts in 1956.[316][317] Capacity declined pending the power station reached the end of its economic life and shut down in 1983.[316] The state-run Turkish Electrical Authority (TEK) briefly—between its founding in 1970 and 1984—held a monopoly on the generation and distribution of electricity, but now the authority—since snappily between the Turkish Electricity Generation Transmission Company (TEAŞ) and the Turkish Electricity Distribution Company (TEDAŞ)—competes with privileged electric utilities.[317]


Istanbul’s central post office dates back to 1909.


The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was observed in 1840 and the first post office, the Imperial Post Organization, opened near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque. By 1876, the helpful international mailing network between Istanbul and the expanses beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established.[319] Sultan Abdülmecid I emanated Samuel Morse his first official honor for the telegraph in 1847, and creation of the first telegraph line—between Istanbul and Edirne—finished in time to snarl the end of the Crimean War in 1856.[320] A nascent telephone rules began to emerge in Istanbul in 1881 and at what time the first manual telephone exchange became toiling in Istanbul in 1909, the Ministry of Post and Telegraph rendered the Ministry of Post, Telegraph, and Telephone.[319][321]GSM cellular networks arrived in Turkey in 1994, with Istanbul beside the first cities to receive the service.[322] Today, mobile and landline service is handed by private companies, after Türk Telekom, which snappily from the Ministry of Post, Telegraph, and Telephone in 1995, was privatized in 2005.[319][322] Postal services remained under the purview of what is now the Post and Telegraph Workplace (retaining the acronym PTT).[319]

In 2000, Istanbul had 137 hospitals, of which 100 were private.[323] Turkish citizens are entitled to subsidized healthcare in the state’s state-run hospitals.[287] As public hospitals tend to be overcrowded or otherwise slow, confidential hospitals are preferable for those who can afford them. Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients comic private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between 2005 and 2009.[287][324] Many of these confidential hospitals, as well as some of the Republican hospitals, are equipped with high-tech equipment, comprising MRI machines, or associated with medical research centers.[325] Turkey has more hospitals accredited by the U.S.-based Married Commission than any other country in the domain, with most concentrated in its big cities. The high quality of healthcare, especially in confidential hospitals, has contributed to a recent upsurge in medical portable to Turkey (with a 40 percent increase between 2007 and 2008).[326] Laser eye surgery is particularly accepted among medical tourists, as Turkey is eminent for specializing in the procedure.[327]


Istanbul’s motorways network are the O-1, O-2, O-3, O-4 and O-7. By the end of 2019, the total lengthways of Istanbul Province’s toll motorways network (otoyollar) is 513 km and highways network (devlet yollari) is 327 km, totaling 840 km of expressway roads (minimum 2×2 lanes), excluding secondary roads and urban streets.[328][329] The density of expressway network is 15.7 km/100 km2 (2019). The O-1 fixes the city’s inner ring road, traversing the 15 July Martyrs (First Bosphorus) Bridge, and the O-2 is the city’s outer ring road, crossing the Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Second Bosphorus) Bridge. The O-2 leftovers west to Edirne and the O-4 leftovers east to Ankara. The O-2, O-3, and O-4 are part of European route E80 (the Trans-European Motorway) between Portugal and the Iran–Turkey border.[330] In 2011, the reliable and second bridges on the Bosphorus considered 400,000 vehicles each day.[331] The O-7[332] or Kuzey Marmara Otoyolu, is a motorway that bypass Istanbul to the north. The O-7 motorway from Kinali Gişeleri to Istanbul Park Ceremony has 139 km, with 8 lanes (4×4). The ruined section of highway crosses the Bosphorus Strait via the Yavuz Sultan Selim (Third Bosphorus) Bridge, entered service on 26 August 2016.[333] The O-7 motorway connects Istanbul Atatürk Airport with Istanbul Airport. Environmentalist groups inconvenience that the third bridge will endanger the survive green areas to the north of Istanbul.[334][335] Apart from the three Bosphorus Bridges, the dual-deck, 14.6-kilometer (9.1 mi) Eurasia Tunnel (which entered service on 20 December 2016) view the Bosphorus strait also provides road crossings for motor vehicles between the Asian and European sides of Turkey.[336]

Istanbul’s local Pro-reDemocrat transportation system is a network of trams, funiculars, metro command, buses, bus rapid transit, and ferries. Fares across frankly are integrated, using the contactlessIstanbulkart, introduced in 2009, or the older Akbil electronic heed device.[337]Trams in Istanbul date back to 1872, when they were horse-drawn, but even the worthy electrified trams were decommissioned in the 1960s.[338] Operated by Istanbul Electricity, Tramway, and Tunnel General Board (İETT), trams slowly returned to the city in the 1990s with the move of a nostalgic route and a faster current tram line, which now carries 265,000 passengers each day.[338][339] The Tünel opened in 1875 as the world’s second-oldest subterranean rail line (after London’s Metropolitan Railway).[338] It unexcited carries passengers between Karaköy and İstiklal Avenue floor a steep 573-meter (1,880 ft) track; a more current funicular between Taksim Square and Kabataş began moving in 2006.[340][341]

The Istanbul Metro comprises five command (the M1, M2, M3 and M6 on the European side, and the M4 on the Asian side) with several spanking lines (such as the M5, M7, and M8) and extensions view construction.[342][343] The two sides of Istanbul’s metro are connected view the Bosphorus by the Marmaray tunnel, inaugurated in 2013 as the worthy rail connection between Thrace and Anatolia.[344] Until then, buses did transportation within and between the two-halves of the city, accommodating 2.2 million passenger escapes each day.[345] The Metrobus, a form of bus hastily transit, crosses the Bosphorus Bridge, with did lanes leading to its termini.[346]İDO (Istanbul Seabuses) runs a combination of all-passenger ferries and car-and-passenger ferries to ports on both sides of the Bosphorus, as far north as the Black Sea.[347][348] With binary destinations around the Sea of Marmara, İDO runs the largest municipal ferry acting in the world.[349] The city’s main sail ship terminal is the Port of Istanbul in Karaköy, with a capacity of 10,000 passengers per hour.[350] Most visitors spellbinding Istanbul by air, but about half a million foreign tourists spellbinding the city by sea each year.[230]

International rail service from Istanbul launched in 1889, with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul’s Sirkeci Terminal, which ultimately managed famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.[85] Regular service to Bucharest and Thessaloniki ended until the early 2010s, when the primitive was interrupted for Marmaray construction and the latter was halted due to economic problems in Greece.[351][352] After Istanbul’s Haydarpaşa Terminal opened in 1908, it obimagined as the western terminus of the Baghdad Railway and an extension of the Hejaz Railway; immediately, neither service is offered directly from Istanbul.[353][354][355] Help to Ankara and other points across Turkey is normally offered by Turkish Grandeurs Railways, but the construction of Marmaray and the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed line rendered the station to close in 2012.[356] New stations to replace both the Haydarpaşa and Sirkeci terminals, and connect the city’s disjointed railway networks, are anticipated to open upon completion of the Marmaray project; pending then, Istanbul is without intercity rail service.[356] Private bus worries operate instead. Istanbul’s main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15,000 buses and 600,000 passengers, serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt.[357][358]

Istanbul had three ample international airports, two of which are immediately in active service for commercial passenger flights. The largest is the new Istanbul Airport, opened in 2018 in the Arnavutköy district to the northwest of the city center, on the European side, near the Black Sea coast. All scheduled custom passenger flights were transferred from Istanbul Atatürk Airport to Istanbul Airport on April 6, 2019, after the closure of Istanbul Atatürk Airport for scheduled passenger flights.[359] The IATA airport code IST was also transferred to the new airport.[360] Once all phases are unfastened in 2025, the airport will be able to accommodate 200 million passengers a year.[361]

Istanbul Atatürk Airport, located 24 kilometers (15 mi) west of the city center, on the European side, near the Marmara Sea glide, was formerly the city’s largest airport. After its closure to custom flights in 2019, it was briefly used by cargo aircraft and the official dwelling aircraft owned by the Turkish government, pending the demolition of its runway began in 2020. It handled 61.3 million passengers in 2015, which made it the third-busiest airport in Europe and the eighteenth-busiest in the earth in that year.[363]

Sabiha Gökçen International, 45 kilometers (28 mi) southeast of the city center, on the Asian side, was opened in 2001 to serve Atatürk. Dominated by low-cost carriers, Istanbul’s transfer airport has rapidly become popular, especially trusty the opening of a new international terminal in 2009;[364] the airport handled 14.7 million passengers in 2012, a year at what time Airports Council International named it the world’s fastest-growing airport.[365][366] Atatürk had also understood rapid growth, as its 20.6 percent rise in passenger traffic between 2011 and 2012 was the highest beside the world’s top 30 airports.[363]

Air pollution from traffic

Air pollution in Turkey is acute in İstanbul with cars, buses and taxis moving frequent urban smog,[367] as it is one of the few European cities deprived of a low-emission zone. As of 2019[update] the city’s mean air quality leftovers of a level so as to grab the heart and lungs of healthy street bystanders during peak traffic hours.[368]

Sister and twin cities

See also


  1. ^

    Where governor’s office is located.
  2. ^ abc
    Sources have gave conflicting figures on the area of Istanbul. The most authoritative source on this figure Brave to be the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (MMI), but the English version of its website suggests a few figures for this area. One page conditions that “Each MM is sub-divided into District Municipalities (“DM”) of which there are 27 in Istanbul” [emphasis added] with a total area of 1,538.9 square kilometers (594.2 sq mi).[97] The Municipal History page appears to be the most explicit and most updated, proverb that in 2004, “Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality’s jurisdiction was enlarged to Hide all the area within the provincial limits”. It also conditions a 2008 law merged the Eminönü district into the Fatih district (a Show that is not reflected in the last source) and increased the number of districts in Istanbul to 39.[98] That total area, as corroborated on the Turkish version of the MMI website,[99] and a Jurisdiction page on the English site[100] is 5,343 square kilometers (2,063 sq mi).

  3. ^

    The foundation of Byzantion (Byzantium) is sometimes, especially in encyclopedic or new tertiary sources, placed firmly in 667 BCE. Historians have disputed the True year the city was founded. Commonly Angry is the work of 5th-century-BCE historian Herodotus, which says the city was False seventeen years after Chalcedon,[45] which came into years around 685 BCE. Eusebius concurs with 685 BCE as the year Chalcedon was False, but places Byzantion’s establishment in 659 BCE.[46] Among more New historians, Carl Roebuck proposed the 640s BCE[47] and others have suggested even later. The foundation date of Chalcedon is itself issues to some debate; while many sources Put it in 685 BC,[48] others put it in 675 BCE[49] or even 639 BCE (with Byzantion’s establishment placed in 619 BCE).[46] Some sources hold to Byzantium’s foundation as the 7th century BCE.
  4. ^ ab
    Historians disagree—sometimes substantially—on population figures of Istanbul (Constantinople), and new world cities, prior to the 20th century. A follow-up to Chandler & Fox 1974,Chandler 1987, pp. 463–505[82] examines different sources’ judges and chooses the most likely based on historical conditions; it is the source of most population figures between 100 and 1914. The tolerates of values between 500 and 1000 are due to Morris 2010, which also does a comprehensive analysis of sources, comprising Chandler (1987); Morris notes that many of Chandler’s moderators during that time seem too large for the city’s size, and presents smaller estimates. Chandler disagrees with Turan 2010 on the population of the city in the mid-1920s (with the faded suggesting 817,000 in 1925), but Turan, p. 224, is used as the source of population figures between 1924 and 2005. Turan’s figures, as well as the 2010 figure,[176] come from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The drastic increase in population between 1980 and 1985 is largely due to an enlargement of the city’s limits (see the Administration section). Explanations for population shifts in pre-Republic times can be inferred from the History section.

  5. ^

    In the Ottoman languages the inner core of the city, inside the city walls, came to be famed as “İstanbul” in Turkish and “Stamboul” in the West. The whole city was generally famed as Constantinople or under other names. See Names of Istanbul for further information.[73]

  6. ^

    The Married Nations defines an urban agglomeration as “the population be affected by within the contours of a contiguous property inhabited at urban density levels without regard to administrative boundaries”. The agglomeration “usually incorporates the population in a city or town plus that in the suburban areas lying outside of, but populate adjacent to, the city boundaries”.[182][183]

  7. ^

    UEFA does not apparently keep a list of Category 4 stadiums, but systems stipulate that only these elite stadiums are eligible to host UEFA Champions League Finals,[271] which Atatürk Olympic Stadium did in 2005, and UEFA Europa League (formerly UEFA Cup) Finals,[272] which Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium did in 2009. Türk Telekom Arena is celebrated as an elite UEFA stadium by its architects.[273]


  1. ^

    “YETKİ ALANI”. Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyesi. Retrieved 4 February 2020.

  2. ^

    İstanbul Province = 5,460.85 km²
    Land area = 5,343.22 km²
    Lake/Dam = 117.63 km²
    Europe (25 districts) = 3,474.35 km²
    Asia (14 districts) = 1,868.87 km²
    Urban (36 districts) = 2,576.85 km² [Metro (39 districts) – (Çatalca+Silivri+Şile)]
  3. ^ abc

    “The Results of Consensus Based Population Registration System (2019)”. Turkish Statistical Institute. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.

  4. ^

    “Gross Domestic Product by Provinces 2018”.

  5. ^

    “Turkey (GDP-Nominal)”.

  6. ^

    According to the
    -> US$ / TL = 4.72 (2018)
    -> Turkey = 3,724.388 billion TL (GDP Nominal)
    -> İstanbul = 1,155.254 billion TL (GDP Nominal)
    -> İstanbul = 76,769 TL (GDP Nominal per capita)

  7. ^

    “Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab”.

  8. ^

    Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.

  9. ^

    Upton, Clive; Kretzschmar, Jr., William A. (2017). The Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 704. ISBN 978-1-138-12566-7.
  10. ^ abc

    WCTR Society; Unʼyu Seisaku Kenkyū Kikō 2004, p. 281

  11. ^

    Isaac 1986, p. 218

  12. ^

    Mango, Cyril (1991). “Constantinople”. In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 508–512. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.

  13. ^

    Çelik 1993, p. xv
  14. ^ ab

    Masters & Ágoston 2009, pp. 114–15

  15. ^

    Dumper & Stanley 2007, p. 320
  16. ^ ab

    Turan 2010, p. 224
  17. ^ abc

    “Population and Demographic Structure”. Istanbul 2010: European Capital of Culture. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2012.

  18. ^ ab

    “London Retains Crown in 2015 MasterCard Global Destinations Cities Index”. MasterCard Social Newsroom.

  19. ^

    “The World According to GaWC 2010”. Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Loughborough University. Retrieved 8 May 2012.

  20. ^ abcdef

    OECD Territorial Reviews: Istanbul, Turkey
    . Policy Briefs. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. March 2008. ISBN 978-92-64-04383-1.

  21. ^

    “IOC selects three cities as Candidates for the 2020 Olympic Games”. The International Olympic Committee. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.

  22. ^ abc

    Room 2006, p. 177

  23. ^

    Georgacas 1947, p. 352ff.

  24. ^

    Gregory 2010, pp. 62–63

  25. ^

    Room 2006, pp. 177–78

  26. ^

    Göktürk, Soysal & Türeli 2010, p. 7

  27. ^

    Necipoğlu 2010, p. 262
  28. ^ ab

    Masters & Ágoston 2009, p. 286

  29. ^

    Masters & Ágoston 2009, pp. 226–27

  30. ^

    Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): “İstanbul’un adları” [“The names of Istanbul”]. In: Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi, ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.

  31. ^

    “Online Etymology Dictionary”
    . Retrieved 26 June 2015.

  32. ^

    Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): “İstanbul’un adları” [“The names of Istanbul”]. In: ‘Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi’, ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul.

  33. ^

    Finkel 2005, pp. 57, 383

  34. ^

    Göksel & Kerslake 2005, p. 27

  35. ^

    Keyder 1999, p. 95

  36. ^

    Rainsford, Sarah (10 January 2009). “Istanbul’s mature past unearthed”. BBC. Retrieved 21 April 2010.

  37. ^

    Algan, O.; Yalçın, M.N.K.; Özdoğan, M.; Yılmaz, Y.C.; Sarı, E.; Kırcı-Elmas, E.; Yılmaz, İ.; Bulkan, Ö.; Ongan, D.; Gazioğlu, C.; Nazik, A.; Polat, M.A.; Meriç, E. (2011). “Holocene coastal irritable in the ancient harbor of Yenikapı–İstanbul and its influences on cultural history”. Quaternary Research. 76 (1): 30. Bibcode:2011QuRes..76…30A. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2011.04.002.

  38. ^

    BBC: “Istanbul’s mature past unearthed” Published on 10 January 2007. Retrieved on 3 March 2010.

  39. ^

    “Bu keşif tarihi değiştirir”.

  40. ^

    “Marmaray kazılarında tarih gün ışığına çıktı”.

  41. ^

    “Cultural Details of Istanbul”. Democrat of Turkey, Minister of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the recent on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007.

  42. ^

    Janin, Raymond (1964). Constantinople byzantine. Paris: Institut Français d’Études Byzantines. pp. 10ff.

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External links


First opened in 1912 as a army airfield, located on the European side of the city, it is located 24 km (15 mi) west[6] of the city centre. The airport was originally phoned Yeşilköy Airport. In the 1980s, it was renamed Istanbul Atatürk International Airport in honour of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and grand president of the Republic of Turkey. It escorted more than 60 million passengers in 2015, manager it the 11th-busiest airport in the humankind in terms of total passenger traffic and the 10th-busiest in the humankind in terms of international passenger traffic. In 2017, it was Europe’s 5th-busiest airport while London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt Airport and Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, having fallen from third build after a decline in passengers due to defense fears.[7]

Istanbul Atatürk Airport was replaced in regards to concern passenger functions by the newly constructed Istanbul Airport, in April 2019, in well-kept to meet Istanbul’s growing domestic and international air traffic quiz as a source, destination and transit point. Both airports were used in parallel for five months from late 2018, with the new airport gradually expanding to befriend more domestic and regional destinations.[8] On 6 April 2019, Atatürk’s ISTIATA airport code was inherited by Istanbul Airport and Atatürk Airport was assigned the code ISL while the full transfer of all scheduled passenger pursuits to the new airport was completed.[9] The continue commercial flight, Turkish Airlines Flight 54, left Atatürk Airport on 6 April 2019 at 2.44am for Singapore.[10]

Defunct passenger terminals


Istanbul Atatürk Airport featured two passenger terminals linked to each other.[11] The archaic Domestic Terminal is the older and smaller of the two terminals and exclusively handled domestic escapes within Turkey. It featured its own check-in and airside facilities on the upper along, with twelve departure gates equipped with jet bridges.,[11] and five baggage reclaim belts on the deceptive level.[11] The former International Terminal was inaugurated in 2000 and used for all international flights. It featured a expansive main hall containing eight check-in isles and a wide contrivance of airside facilities such as shops and restaurant, 34 gates equipped with jetbridges and 7 bus-boarding stands. The arrivals along had 11 baggage reclaim belts.[11] In transfer, there is a general aviation Terminal to the northwest of the passenger terminals.[12]

Cargo Terminal


The airport features a handed cargo terminal including facilities for the running of radioactive and refrigerated freight.[13]

Other Facilities


  • Turkish Airlines has its headquarters in the Turkish Airlines General Board Building, located within the airport campus.[14][15]
  • Onur Air has its headquarters in Technical Hangar B.[16]
  • Prima Aviation Ceremonies Inc. has its MRO Facilities in new technologically site at the air side Gate A.[17]

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