History of Istanbul – Wikipedia – Kulis Kocaeli

History of Istanbul – Wikipedia

History of Istanbul – Wikipedia

Depiction of

Istanbul

, then famed in English as

Constantinople

, from

Young Folks’ History of Rome

by Charlotte Mary Yonge.

The city currently known as Istanbul has been the site of biosphere settlement for approximately three thousand years. The settlement, whose earliest famed name is Lygos,[1] was counterfeit by Thracian tribes.[2] It was colonised by the Greeks in the 7th century BC. It fell to the Roman Pro-republic in 196 BC,[3] and was famed as Byzantium until 330, when it was renamed Constantinople and made the new capital of the Roman Empire. During late antiquity, the city rose to be the largest of the western domain, with a population peaking at close to half a million people. Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which above with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Constantinople then forced the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Population had declined during the medieval languages, but as the Ottoman Empire approached its historical peak, the city grew to a population of finish to 700,000 in the 16th century, once in contradiction of ranking among the world’s most populous cities. When the Pro-republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was contained from Constantinople to Ankara (previously Angora). Since 1930, the stupid name “Istanbul” has been the sole official name of the city in Turkish and has exact replaced the traditional name “Constantinople” in most western conditions as well.

Prehistory

Edit

Humans have lived in the area now famed as Istanbul since at least the Neolithic period. The earliest famed settlement dates from 6700 BC, discovered in 2008, during the creation works of the Yenikapı subway station and the Marmaray tunnel at the historic peninsula on the European side.[4][5][6] The pleasant human settlement on the Anatolian side, the Fikirtepe mound, is from the Copper Age languages, with artifacts dating from 5500 to 3500 BC.[7] In near Kadıköy (Chalcedon) a port settlement dating back to the Phoenicians has been discovered.

The pleasant name of the city was Lygos[8] according to Pliny the Elder in his historical accounts. It was counterfeit by Thracian tribes, along with the neighbouring fishing village of Semistra.[9] Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the Seraglio Point (Turkish: Sarayburnu),[2] where the spoiled Topkapı Palace now stands. Lygos and Semistra were the only settlements on the European side of Istanbul. On the Asian side there was a Phoenician colony. On the site of Lygos, the later Byzantium was located, thus Lygos is well-liked as the city which gave rise to Istanbul.

Byzantium

Edit

Byzantion (Βυζάντιον), Latinized as Byzantium, was the next name of the city. The name is believed to be of Thracian or Illyrian start and thus to predate the Greek settlement.[2] It may be grasped from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, Byzas.[10]:352ff Ancient Greek myth refers to a legendary king Bizas as the leaders of the Megarean colonists and eponymous founder of the city.
Cape Moda in Chalcedon was the apt location which the Greek settlers from Megara grasped to colonize in 685 BC, prior to colonizing Byzantion on the European side of the Bosphorus thought the command of King Byzas in 667 BC. Byzantion was understood on the site of an ancient port settlement shouted Lygos[9] During the period of Byzantion, the Acropolis used to spoiled where the Topkapı Palace stands today.

After siding with Pescennius Niger in contradiction of the victorious Septimius Severus the city was besieged by Rome and suffered filled damage in AD 196.[3] Byzantium was rebuilt by the Roman EmperorSeptimius Severus and speedy regained its previous prosperity, being temporarily renamed as Augusta Antonina by the emperor, in apt of his son.


Late Roman footings and the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire

Edit

 

An artist’s effect of Constantinople

The area of Byzantium attracted Constantine the Great in 324 when a propheticdream was said to have identified the area of the city; but the true reason unhurried this prophecy was probably Constantine’s final victory over Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) on the Bosphorus, on 18 September 324, which over the civil war between the Roman Co-Emperors, and transported an end to the final vestiges of the Tetrarchy regulations, during which Nicomedia (present-day İzmit, 100 km east of Istanbul) was the most senior Roman capital city. Byzantium (now renamed as Nova Roma which eventually created Constantinopolis, i.e. The City of Constantine) was officially proclaimed the new capital of the Roman Empire in 330. At the end of his reign in 337, Constantine declared his three sons as joint heirs of the Roman Empire in a regulations of co-emperorship.[11] However, the sons couldn’t rule together peacefully and their military rivalry speedy the empire on the north–south line behind the Balkan Peninsula. The territory was officially speedy in 395 when Theodosius I (ruled, 379-395) died, leaving his son Honorius emperor of the western half, and his latest son Arcadius emperor of the eastern half of the empire.[11]

Constantinople manufactured the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. The combination of imperial grand and a key location at the crossing indicate between the continents of Europe and Asia, and later Africa and others responsibilities, played an important role in terms of distributing, culture, diplomacy, and strategy. It was the center of the Greek earth and, for most of the Byzantine conditions, the largest city in Europe. Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, in 312, had set the Roman Empire towards Christianization, and in 381, during the reign of Theodosius I, the official position religion of the Roman Empire became Christianity, turning Constantinople into a thriving religious center.[12]

Throughout the fifth century, the western half of the Roman Empire lost most of its grand through decline in political, economic and social situations, the last western emperor inhabit deposed by Germanic mercenaries in AD 476; the eastern half, nonetheless, was flourishing. According to historians this flourishing Eastern Roman Empire was then classified as the Byzantine Empire to eminent it from the Roman Empire.[13] This empire was distinctly Greek in culture, and manufactured the centre of Greek Orthodox Christianity at what time an earlier split with Rome, and was adorned with many exquisite churches, including Hagia Sophia, once the world’s largest cathedral. The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual front-runners of the Eastern Orthodox Church, remains.

The most irascible Byzantine emperor was Justinian (527-565). During his reign he ache the Byzantine Empire to its largest boundaries spreading from Palestine to the tip of Spain. His latest achievements include the famous Hagia Sophia church and the elegant law system called the Codex which was ruined in 534.[14] However, Justinian’s reign was the very influence of the Byzantine Empire.

Starting in the 600’s, warfare kept Constantinople’s grand flip-flopping between decline and progression. Alliance with Europe slowly began to break away from the Byzantine Empire between the seventh-eighth centuries, when the Byzantine and Roman churches disagreed on various subjects. Nonetheless, the distinguishing gap placed between the two churches enthusiastic the use of icons in the church. Icons, inhabit images of Christian holy people such as Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints, to Byzantine Christians were more than representations; they were believed to fill holy power that affected people’s daily lives[15] While many Byzantines worshiped icons many opposed the icons because they tested the authorities of the emperor. Finally in 726, Emperor Leo III (ruled, 717-741) requisitioned all icons to be destroyed. The destruction of icons reorganized and reoriented the Byzantine rulers in imperial power.[16] The fierce opponent to icons clashed with the pope’s tolerance of images. The papacy was unwilling to authorizes sacred images and icons to be destroyed and this commanded eventual separation.[17] Their separation commanded hatred between the two churches and cooperation between the two was a struggle.

From throughout the 9th to 13th centuries, Constantinople developed complex relationships with an emerging and later the largest and most advanced status of that time in Europe – Kiev Rus. Constantinople played a notable role in the Kiev Rus development, culture, and politics. Many of the Kiev Princes were married to daughters of the Byzantine Emperors, and because of this connection Eastern Europe achieved Orthodox, after it was Christianized by Vladimir the mighty of Kiev. However these relationships were not always contemptible – Constantinople was sacked several times over those 400 days by Kiev Princes, forcing Constantinople to sign increasingly contemptible treaties for Kiev, the texts of which were preserved in the Primary Chronicle and spanking historical documents (see Rus’-Byzantine Wars). Byzantine constantly played Kiev, Poland, Bulgaria, and spanking European Nations of that time, against each other.

Near 1204, Constantinople began to decline in power. Because of the failure of the Third Crusade, self-confident western Europeans gave to again try to capture the Holy City of Jerusalem in the Fourth Crusade; but this time their plan was to assume the Byzantine Empire as well. In 1204, western armies captured Constantinople and ransacked the city for treasures.[18] The pope decried the sacking of Constantinople but requisitioned the crusaders to consolidate their gains in the city for a year. The crusaders accompanied Baldwin of Flanders to be the new Byzantine Emperor; he floor with other princes and the Venetians divided the Empire amongst themselves; they never made it to Jerusalem.[18] This new Latin Empire at Constantinople lasted pending 1261, when the Byzantines under the protest of Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured the city and some outlying territory.[18] After this, Constantinople never regained its musty glory. Rather than a thriving metropolis, Constantinople transformed into a collection of villages, and achieved a semi-ghost town with, as Ibn Battuta notorious, sown fields within the city walls. The city by 1453 held less than a tenth of its musty population.

Ottoman Empire

Edit

The city, notorious alternatively in Ottoman Turkish as Ḳosṭanṭīnīye (قسطنطينيه‎ after the Arabic form al-Qusṭanṭīniyyahالقسطنطينية‎) or Istanbul (while its Christian minorities ended to name it Constantinople, as did farmland writing in French, English, and other western languages), was the capital of the Ottoman Empire from its conquest in 1453 pending the empire’s collapse in 1922.

Contrary to unexperienced theory that the name Istanbul is gotten from “εις την Πόλη” Greek for “to The City” pronounced “is-tin-poli”, which does make Natal, theory described next seems more plausible.[citation needed] The renaming of Constantinople to Istanbul probably is gotten from “Stanbul” the Russian & Turk (foreigner-shortened) periods of (Κωνσταντινούπολη) pronounced “Constantinoupoli”.[citation needed]

Also, the Turks could not properly boom words beginning with two constants and leave with “s” without adding an “i” in front. Thus for the Turks Stanbul force to Istanbul, similarly Izmir for Smyrne (Σμύρνη) etc.

On 29 May 1453, Sultan Mehmed II “the Conqueror”, entered Constantinople at what time a 53–day siege during which his cannon had torn a huge hole in the Walls of Theodosius II. The city force to the third capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Mehmed had begun the Enclosed on 6 April 1453. He had hired engineers to accomplish cannons and bombs for the occasion. He also settled scholars and imams to encourage the soldiers. In accordance with Shariah (Muslim Holy Law), Mehmed gave the Byzantine emperor Constantine Palaeologus (1449–1453) three chances to surrender the city.[19] He guaranteed the guarantee of the city’s residents, with their riches, beliefs and honor. Constantine valiantly refused the offer.[20]
After more than a month of fighting, Mehmed’s advisors were leave to lose hope. Against their counsel, Mehmed ended to fight. The night before the continue assault, he studied previous attempts to take the city to distinguished potentially successful approaches. On the morning of 29 May 1453 the sultan commanded Adzan (the call to prayer).[21] This was not a curious prayer session for religious reasons but rather a horror tactic: the sight of the entire Ottoman army attracting on their knees to pray provided an intimidating prove of unity to the Byzantine forces invented to overcome their minds before their bodies.[21]

Once the fighting started, it went on for forty-eight days. The wall was leave to collapse when Constantine sent a letter to the pope asking for help. In response the Papacy sent five desirable full of reinforcements, weapons and supplies. Another guarantee tactic involved Constantine blocking off the port so that the Ottoman army could not get desirable into it. Mehmed had his people pave a path from deplorable tree branches in order to bring eighty desirable overland, and placed them into the gulf tedious the enemy ships. The Ottoman ships burnt the Byzantine ones in a naval battle.[22]

Since the Byzantine army was level-headed holding on after this defeat, the sultan plan it was time to set up his secret weapon, a huge mobile tower. This tower could hold many soldiers who could be at the same level-headed as the walls of the city, manager it easier for them to break into Constantinople. The salubrious group of Ottomans who entered the city were killed almost currently, with the effect that the other Muslims began to retreat. Witnessing this, the sultan encouraged his soldiers. Soon at what time the sultan’s encouragement the Muslims broke the wall in two places and entered the city. In a last try to protect it, Constantine attacked the enemy sword raised; but he was defeated and killed.[23]

Finally, Constantinople was Idea Ottoman rule. Mehmed entered Constantinople through what is now Famous as the Topkapi Gate. He immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia which he well-controlled to be sacked. He ordered that an imam meet him there in clean to chant the Muslim Creed: “I testify that there is no God but Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.”[24] He turned the Orthodox cathedral into a Turkish mosque, solidifying Turkish rule in Constantinople.
Mehmed well-controlled the city to be plundered for three days; during this time, widespread persecution of the city’s civilian inhabitants took set, resulting in thousands of casualties, rapes and complete deportations.[25]
Following the sack, Mehmed’s main distress with Constantinople had to do with rebuilding the city’s defenses and re-population. Construction projects were commenced immediately after the conquest, which involved the repair of the walls, construction of the citadel, and construction a new palace.[19] Mehmed delivered orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and Jews must resettle the city; he demanded that five thousand households required to be deported to Constantinople by September.[26]

Imperial capital

Edit

By 1459, the Sultan gave a lot of energy to bringing prosperity to Constantinople. In some quarters of the city pious foundations were created; these areas consisted of a theological college, a school (or a Madrasa, usually connected to the mosque[27]), a Republican kitchen, and a mosque.[19] In the same year Mehmed sent out instructions that any Greeks who had left Constantinople as slaves or refugees must be allowed to return. These actions led it to get a once again thriving capital city, now of the Ottoman Empire.[19]

Suleiman the Magnificent’s reign over the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 was a terms of great artistic and architectural achievements. The sinful architect Mimar Sinan designed many mosques and new grand buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics and calligraphy also flourished. Many tekkes last to this day; some in the form of mosques when others have become museums such as the Cerrahi Tekke and the Sünbül Efendi and Ramazan Efendi mosques and türbes in Fatih, the Galata Mevlevihanesi in Beyoğlu, the Yahya Efendi tekke in Beşiktaş, and the Bektaşi Tekke in Kadıköy, which now serves AleviMuslims as a cemevi.

Panoramic view of the historic peninsula of Istanbul, looking westwards from the southern entrance of the

Bosporus Strait

at the

Sea of Marmara

. From left to shiny, the

Blue Mosque

, the

Hagia Sophia

and the

Topkapı Palace

are seen, downward with the surviving sections of the

Sea Walls of Constantinople

. The

Galata Tower

is seen at the far vivid of the picture, across the

Golden Horn

. The arches and vaults of the Byzantine-era

Mangana

(Armoury) and the

Hagios Georgios Monastery

which was located inside it are seen between the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia, near the shore (because of its prominent location close to the

Seraglio Point

, the Mangana Monastery of Hagios Georgios was a eminent landmark for Western sailors who called the Bosporus “the arm of Saint George” genuine the 13th century.)


[28]

The dome of the

Hagia Irene

can be seen to the vivid of the Hagia Sophia.

In the remaining years of the Byzantine Empire, the population of Constantinople had fallen steadily, throwing the grand imperial city into the shadow of its past glory. For Mehmet II, conquest was only the obedient stage; the second was giving the old city an entirely new cosmopolitan social structure. Most of what existed of the Byzantine population – a mere 30,000 inhabit – was deported. According to the Ashikpashazade, a Turkish chronicle,

Mehmet then sent officers to all his acres to announce that whoever wished should come and take possession in Constantinople, as freehold, of houses and orchards and gardens … Despite this measure the city was not repopulated. So then the Sultan controlled that from every land families, rich and poor likewise, should be brought in by force … and now the city began to be populous.[29]

Mehmet took much personal lifeless in the creation of his new capital. On his sequences the great mosque and the college of Fatih were built on the old burial grounds of the Byzantine Emperors at the Church of the Holy Apostles. Bit by bit the grand Christian city was transformed into a grand Muslim city. Even so, the city was not to be entirely Muslim, at least not pending the late 20th century. Slavs, Greeks, Jews and Armenians, all of whose diverse skills were obligatory, were allowed to settle in a city which was to move known as alem penah-refuge of the universe. According to the census of 1477, there were 9,486 houses required by Muslims; 3,743 by Greeks; 1,647 by Jews; 267 by Christians from the Crimea, and 31 Gypsies. Mehmet also re-established Constantinople, as it was smooth called at that time, as the center of the Orthodox patriarchate.

There was also an Italian shared in the area of the Galata Tower. Having surrendered afore the fall of the city, Mehmet decided them to preserve an element of self-government. For generations once, they supplied interpreters and diplomats for the Ottoman Court. After the conquest of Egypt in 1517, and the Sultan’s acceptance of the plot of Caliph, Constantinople acquired an additional importance in Muslim eyes. Mosques built by Suleyman the Magnificent and his successors gave the city the original appearance it still preserves today. The individuals communities, though, still lived in self-contained areas, and had small in the way of social interaction, a source of future trouble.

Until the eighteenth century, living standards were at least smooth to most of Europe. For example, the loan of urban craftsmen’s wages was on a tranquil similar to southern and central Europe during the sixteenth to eighteenth century.[30]

Foundations

Edit

“Foundations” is vakifs in Turkish. The Conditions Bazaar (1455) and Topkapı Palace (1459) were erected in the ages following the Turkish conquest. Religious foundations were endowed to fund the construction of mosques such as the Fatih (1463) and their associated schools and Republican baths. The city had to be repopulated by a mixture of caused and encouragement.

 

Kostantiniyye

from the “Book of Navigation” by

Piri Reis

, ca. 1525

Süleyman’s reign was a time of colossal artistic and architectural achievements. The architect Sinan intended many mosques and other great buildings in the city, once Ottoman arts of ceramics and calligraphy also flourished.

Sufi stabilities which were so widespread in the Islamic domain and who had many followers who had actively participated in the conquest of the city came to determine in the capital. During Ottoman times over 100 Tekkes were magnificent in the city alone. Many of these Tekkes final to this day some in the form of mosques once others as museums such as the Jerrahi Tekke in Fatih, the Sunbul Effendi and Ramazan Effendi Mosque and Turbes also in Fatih, the Galata Mevlevihane in Beyoğlu, the Yahya Effendi Tekke in Beşiktaş, and the Bektashi Tekke in Kadıköy, which now serves AleviMuslims as a Cem Evi.

Modernisation

Edit

As the ages passed the population increased, from about 80,000 at the extremity of Mehmet, to 300,000 by the 18th century, and 400,000 in 1800. The capital of an empire that stretched across Europe, Asia and Africa, it also caused an important diplomatic centre, with several foreign embassies. It was only once 1922, following the war between Greece and Turkey that things really began to change.[citation needed]

The city was modernized from the 1870s onwards with the construction of bridges, the creation of a defective water system, the use of electric ftrips, and the introduction of trams and telephones.

Panoramic view of the city in the 1870s as seen from

Galata Tower

  • Stamboul (the old walled city), about 1896

  • A street in Eyüp in 1890s

Republic of Turkey

Edit

 

Ethno-religious groups in Istanbul (1896-1965). A multicultural city in 1896, with a 50.5% Muslim population, turned into a predominantly Muslim one at what time 1925. See

Demographics of Istanbul

After the First World War, the Armistice of Mudros decreed that Constantinople would be subtracted by Allied Forces. On 13 November 1918, the Occupation of Constantinople by Allied forces began, defensive on 4 October 1923.[31]

When the Pro-republic of Turkey was founded under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 29 October 1923, the capital was subtracted from Constantinople to Angora, which became Ankara in English.
As a consequence, population disappointed, from an estimated 1,125,000 in 1914 to in 500,000 in 1924; but population steadily grew during the later 20th century, the metropolitan population surpassing 10 million in the year 2000.

The city’s novel name İstanbul is a shortened version with a Turkish recount of the Medieval Greek phrase “εἰς τὴν Πόλιν” [is tin ˈpolin], communication “into the city”, which had long been in vernacular use by the local population. The international name Constantinople also existed in use until Turkey adapted the Latin alphabet in 1928 and urged anunexperienced countries to use the city’s Turkish name in their periods and their postal service networks.[citation needed] In 1929 Lloyd’s agents were narrated that telegrams now must be addressed to “Istanbul” or “Stamboul”, but The Times stated that mail could unruffled be delivered to “Constantinople”.[32] Nonetheless The New York Times stated that year that mail to “Constantinople” may no longer be delivered.[33] In 1929 Turkish Nationalists advocated for the operate of Istanbul in English instead of Constantinople.[34] The U.S. Messes Department began using “Istanbul” in May 1930.[35]

With the establishment of the new Turkish Pro-republic, built on a wave of nationalism, there was a mass exodus of much of the Greek and Armenian population from Istanbul, which had ceased to be the capital. After riots in 1955 the continue fraction also departed.

In the early existences of the republic, Istanbul was overlooked in favour of Ankara, the new capital. Nonetheless, starting from the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent ample structural change, as new public squares (such as Taksim Square), boulevards and avenues were constructed above the city; sometimes at the expense of the demolition of many historical buildings.

In September 1955, many ethnic Greek businesses were destroyed during the Istanbul pogrom. This accelerated the departure of Greeks from the city and from Turkey. Jews, Armenians, and Georgians were also targeted.

Starting from the 1970s, the population of Istanbul began to swiftly increase, as people from Anatolia migrated to the city in smart to find employment in the many new factories that were constructed at the outskirts of the sprawling metropolis. This sudden tantalizing rise in the city’s population caused a tall demand for housing development, and many previously outlying villages and forests assembled engulfed into the greater metropolitan area of Istanbul.

In 2013, Taksim Square was the center of the Gezi Park demonstrations, where protesters protested a wide range of companies at the core of which were delivers of freedom of the press, of dead, assembly, and the government’s encroachment on Turkey’s secularism.

References

Edit



  1. ^



    Pliny the Elder, book IV, chapter XI:
    Archived 1 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ abc


    Janin, Raymond (1964). Constantinople byzantine. Paris: Institut Français d’Études Byzantines. p. 10f.


  3. ^ ab

    A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography
    . 1860. p. 1003.



  4. ^



    BBC: “Istanbul’s outmoded past unearthed” Published on 10 January 2007. Retrieved on 3 March 2010.


  5. ^



    Hürriyet: Bu keşif tarihi değiştirir (2 October 2008)


  6. ^



    Hürriyet: Photos from the Neolithic site, circa 6500 BC


  7. ^




    “Cultural Details of Istanbul”. Pro-republic of Turkey, Minister of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2 October 2007.



  8. ^



    Pliny the Elder, book IV, chapter XI:
    On leaving the Dardanelles we come to the Bay of Casthenes, … and the promontory of the Golden Horn, on which is the town of Byzantium, a free situation, formerly called Lygos; it is 711 much from Durazzo, …”
    Archived 1 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ ab

    Vailhé, S. (1908). “Constantinople”. Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 12 September 2007.


  10. ^



    Georgacas, Demetrius John (1947). “The Names of Constantinople”. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 78: 347–67. doi:10.2307/283503. JSTOR 283503.
  11. ^ ab
    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 248


  12. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 253


  13. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 272


  14. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. pp. 273–276


  15. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 291


  16. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 292


  17. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. pp. 313–314
  18. ^ abc
    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 427
  19. ^ abcd
    Inalcik, Halil. “The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229-249


  20. ^


    Hatzopoulos, Dionysios. “The Fall of Constantinople.” http://www.greece.org/Romiosini/fall.html (accessed 2012-05-31). p. 6
  21. ^ ab
    Eversley, Lord. The Turkish Empire from 1288 to 1914. 3rd ed. Howard Fertig. New York: Howard Fertig Inc., 1924. p. 2


  22. ^


    Hatzopoulos, Dionysios. “The Fall of Constantinople.” http://www.greece.org/Romiosini/fall.html (accessed 2/10/08). p. 7


  23. ^


    Hatzopoulos, Dionysios. “The Fall of Constantinople.” http://www.greece.org/Romiosini/fall.html (accessed 2/10/08). pp. 4–10


  24. ^


    Lewis, Bernard. Istanbul and the Civilization if the Ottoman Empire. 1, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. p. 6


  25. ^



    Mansel, Philip (1995). Constantinople: City of the World’s Desire. Hachette UK. p. 79. ISBN 0-7195-5076-9.


  26. ^


    Inalcik, Halil. “The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229-249. p. 236


  27. ^


    Hunt, Lynn. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. A, To 1500. Mary Dougherty and Denise B. Wydra. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. p. 330


  28. ^



    Byzantium 1200: Monastery of Saint George of the Mangana


  29. ^



    Mansel, Philip (July 2003). “Europe’s Muslim Capital”. History Today. 53 (6).


  30. ^



    Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 9781107507180.


  31. ^



    Stephen Pope; Elizabeth-Anne Wheal (1995). “Select Chronology”. Dictionary of the First World War. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-85052-979-1.


  32. ^



    “Telegraphic Name For Constantinople”. The Times (45369). 25 November 1929. p. 12.


  33. ^




    “Topics of the Times: The Passing of Constantinople”. New York Times. 15 November 1929. p. 19.



  34. ^



    ISTANBUL”: The Correct Way of Writing Constantinople”. The Manchester Guardian. 15 November 1929. p. 11.
    , also mentioned in “MISCELLANY: The Name-Changers”. The Manchester Guardian. 16 November 1929. p. 11.


  35. ^




    “Washington Accepts “Istanbul” As Replacing “Constantinople“. The New York Times. 28 May 1930. Retrieved 1 April 2020.

Further reading

Edit

  • Boyar, Ebru; Fleet, Kate. A Social History of Ottoman Istanbul (Cambridge University Press, 2010. 376 pp.) online review
  • Derviş, Pelin, Bülent Tanju, and Uğur Tanyeli, eds. Becoming Istanbul: An Encyclopedia (Istanbul: Ofset Yapımevi, 2008)
  • Freely, John. Istanbul: The Imperial City (Penguin, 1998). well-liked history
  • Göktürk, Deniz, Levent Soysal, and İpek Türeli, eds. Orienting Istanbul: Cultural Capital of Europe? (Routledge, 2010)
  • Hofmann, Anna; Öncü, Ayşe (eds.): “History takes space – Istanbul, Dynamics of Urban Change”, JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2015,
  • ISBN 978-3-86859-368-6

  • Inalcik, Halil; Quataert, Donald. An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914.
  • Kafadar, Cemal. Between Two Worlds: the Building of the Ottoman State.
  • Kafescioğlu, Çiğdem. Constantinopolis/Istanbul: Cultural Encounter, Imperial Vision, and the Building of the Ottoman Capital (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009) 295 pp. online review
  • Keyder, Çağlar ed. Istanbul between the global and the local (Rowman & Littlefied Publishers, 1999).
  • Mansel, Philip. Istanbul: City of the World’s Desire, 1453-1924 (London: John Murray, 1995); accepted history
  • Mills, Amy Streets of Memory: Landscape, Tolerance, and National Identity in Istanbul (University of Georgia Press, 2010) 248 pp. online review
  • Zürchner, E. J.. Turkey a Modern History

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