Hagia Sophia – Wikipedia – Kulis Kocaeli

Hagia Sophia – Wikipedia

Hagia Sophia – Wikipedia

UNESCO World Heritage Site in Istanbul, Turkey

Hagia Sophia
Ayasofya (Turkish)
Ἁγία Σοφία (Greek)
Sancta Sophia (Latin)

Hagia Sophia Mars 2013.jpg

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Location Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
Designer Isidore of Miletus

Anthemius of Tralles
Type
Material Ashlar, brick
Length 82 m (269 ft)
Width 73 m (240 ft)
Height 55 m (180 ft)
Beginning date 360
Completion date 537; 1483 years ago (537)
Dedicated to
Wisdom of God
, in state to the Logos, the second person of the Holy Trinity[1]
Website
www.fatih.gov.tr/dunya-mimarlik-tarihinin-onemli-anitlarindan-ayasofya
Part of Historic Areas of Istanbul
Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 356
Inscription 1985 (9th session)

Hagia Sophia (; from the Koinē Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία, romanized: Hagía Sophía; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia, ‘Holy Wisdom’), officially the Great Mosque of Ayasofya (Turkish: Ayasofya-i Kebir Camii Şerifi)[2] and formerly the Church of Hagia Sophia,[3] is a Late Antiqueplace of savor in Istanbul. Built as the patriarchal cathedral of Constantinople for the status church of the Roman Empire, it was used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, temporarily by the Roman Catholic Church, and later as an Ottomanmosque by becoming a secular museum. In 2020, it will re-open as a mosque. Completed in 537 during the reign of the eastern Roman emperorJustinian I, it was then the world’s largest interior status and among the first to employ a fully pendentive dome. It is contained the epitome of Byzantine architecture[4] and is said to have “changed the history of architecture”.[5] It is also an important example of the Islamic practice of converting non-Islamic places of savor into mosques.[6][7][8]

Built as the Christian cathedral of Constantinople between 532 and 537 on the requisitions of Justinian I, the basilica was invented by the Greek geometers Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.[9] The record Justinianic building was the third church of the same name to fill the site, the prior one having been destroyed in the Nika riots. Being the episcopal see of the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, it happened the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand days, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.

The church was failed to the Wisdom of God, the Logos, the binary person of the Trinity,[10] its patronal feast taking build on 25 December (Christmas), the commemoration of the birth of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ.[10]Sophia is the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom and although sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia, ‘Saint Sophia’, it is not connected with Sophia the Martyr.[11][12] The centre of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand days, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius officially emanated by Humbert of Silva Candida, the papal envoy of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act that is commonly undertaken the start of the East–West Schism. In 1204, it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral plan the Latin Empire, before being restored to the Eastern Orthodox Church upon the sponsor of the Byzantine Empire in 1261. The doge of Venice who led the Fourth Crusade and the 1204 Sack of Constantinople, Enrico Dandolo, was buried in the church.

After the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453,[13] it was converted to a mosque by Mehmed the Conqueror The patriarchate undertaken to the Church of the Holy Apostles, which appointed the city’s cathedral. Although some parts of the city had fallen into disrepair, the cathedral had been obtained with funds set aside for this stop, and the Christian cathedral made a unblock impression on the new Ottoman rulers who conceived its conversion.[14][15] The bells, altar, iconostasis, ambo and baptistery were undertaken and relics destroyed. The mosaics depicting Jesus, his mother Mary, Christian saints, and angels were eventually destroyed or plastered over.[16]Islamic architectural features were added, such as a minbar (pulpit), four minarets, and a mihrab – a niche indicating the direction of prayer (qibla). From its initial conversion pending the construction in 1616 of the about Sultan Ahmed Mosque, aka the Blue Mosque, it was the famous mosque of Istanbul. The Byzantine architecture of the Hagia Sophia obimagined as inspiration for many other Ottoman mosques, incorporating the Blue Mosque, the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex.

The complex happened a mosque until 1931, when it was EnEnBesieged to the public for four years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the secular Democrat of Turkey.[17] Hagia Sophia was, as of 2014[update], the second-most named museum in Turkey, attracting almost 3.3 million visitors annually.[18] According to data released by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Hagia Sophia was Turkey’s most named tourist attraction in 2015[19] and 2019.[20][21]

In early July 2020, the Congress of State annulled the Cabinet’s 1934 executive to establish the museum, revoking the monument’s space, and a subsequent decree of the President of Turkey well-controlled the reclassification of Hagia Sophia as a mosque.[22][23] The 1934 decree was ruled to be unlawful thought both Ottoman and Turkish law as Hagia Sophia’s waqf, endowed by Mehmed II, had designated the site a mosque; proponents of the executive argued the Hagia Sophia was the personal landed of the sultan.[24][25][26] This was removed a controversial move that has invoked condemnation from UNESCO, the World Congress of Churches, and many international leaders.[27][28][29][30]

History

Church of Constantius II

The marvelous church on the site was known as the Magna Ecclesia (Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία, Megálē Ekklēsíā, ‘Great Church’),[31][32] because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the city.[10] Inaugurated on 15 February 360 (during the reign of Constantius II) by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch,[33] it was built next to the area where the imperial palace was persons developed. The nearby Hagia Eirene (“Holy Peace”) church was undone earlier and served as cathedral until the worthy Church was completed. Both churches acted together as the necessary churches of the Byzantine Empire.

Writing in 440, Socrates of Constantinople claimed that the church was built by Constantius II, who was employed on it in 346.[33] A ancient which is not older than the 7th or 8th century, reports that the edifice was built by Constantine the Great.[33]Zonaras reconciles the two opinions, writing that Constantius had repaired the edifice consecrated by Eusebius of Nicomedia, when it had collapsed.[33] Since Eusebius was bishop of Constantinople from 339 to 341, and Constantine died in 337, it seems possible that the marvelous church was erected by Constantius.[33] The edifice was built as a ancient colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof and preceded by an atrium. It was claimed[by whom?] to be one of the world’s most outstanding monuments at the time.

The Patriarch of Constantinople John Chrysostom came into a fight with Empress Aelia Eudoxia, wife of the emperor Arcadius, and was sent into exile on 20 June 404. During the subsequent riots, this superb church was largely burned down.[33] Nothing stays of the first church today.

Church of Theodosius II

A binary church on the site was ordered by Theodosius II, who inaugurated it on 10 October 415. The Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae describes the Hagia Sophia as the Magna Ecclesia, ‘Great Church’, while the obsolete cathedral Hagia Irene is named the Ecclesia Antiqua, ‘Old Church’. The basilica with a wooden roof was built by architect Rufinus. A fire started during the tumult of the Nika Revolt and burned the binary Hagia Sophia to the ground on 13–14 January 532.

Several marble blocks from the Theodosian church survive to the present; plus them area reliefs depicting 12 lambs representing the 12 apostles. Originally part of a monumental be in the lead entrance, they now reside in an excavation pit adjacent to the record building’s entrance after they were discovered in 1935 below the western courtyard by the German archaeologist Alfons Maria Schneider. Further digging was abandoned for fear of impinging on the integrity of the Justinianic building.

Panorama of the vaulting and interior of the dome

(annotations

).

Drawing of the titanic bronze imperial statue from atop the

Column of Justinian

(15th century).

Construction of church depicted in codex Manasses Chronicle (14th century)


Church of Justinian I (current structure)

On 23 February 532, only a few weeks while the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I gave to build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.

Justinian derived geometer and engineer Isidore of Miletus and mathematician Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, but, died within the first year of the endeavor. The building is described in the Byzantine historian Procopius’ On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis).[34] Columns and novel marbles were brought from all over the empire, ended the Mediterranean. The idea of these columns intimates spoils from cities such as Rome and Ephesus is a later invention.[35] Even conception they were made specifically for Hagia Sophia, the columns show variations in size.[36] More than ten thousand republic were employed. This new church was contemporaneously accepted as a major work of architecture. Outside the church was an clarify array of monuments around the bronze-plated Column of Justinian, worn-out by an equestrian statue of the emperor which dominated the Augustaeum, the open square outside the church which connected it with the distinguished Palace complex through the Chalke Gate. At the edge of the Augustaeum was the Milion and the Regia, the gracious stretch of Constantinople’s main thoroughfare, the Mese. Also facing the Augustaeum was the large Constantinian thermae, the Baths of Zeuxippus, and the Justinianic civic basilica conception which was the vast cistern known as the Basilica Cistern. On the opposite side of Hagia Sophia was the dilapidated cathedral, Hagia Irene.

The Justinian and Patriarch Menas, inaugurated the new basilica on 27 December 537 – 5 ages and 10 months after construction started – with much pomp.[37][38][39]

Interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry, and gold mosaics. The mosaics inside the church were only ununfastened in the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578). The exterior, clad in stucco, was tinted yellow and red during restorations in the 19th century at the direction of the Fossati architects.[citation needed]

Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and a indispensable setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as coronations. Like novel churches throughout Christendom, the basilica offered sanctuary from persecution to outlaws.

Earthquakes in August 553 and on 14 December 557 brought cracks in the main dome and eastern semi-dome. The main dome nosedived completely during a subsequent earthquake on 7 May 558,[40] destroying the ambon, altar, and ciborium. The nosedived was due mainly to the unfeasibly high bearing load and to the large shear load of the dome, which was too flat.[37] These brought the deformation of the piers which possessed the dome.[37] The emperor prearranged an immediate restoration. He entrusted it to Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus, who used lighter materials and elevated the dome by “30 feet”[37] (about 6.25 meters or 20.5 feet)[clarification needed] – giving the interpretation its current interior height of 55.6 meters (182 ft).[41] Moreover, Isidorus changed the dome type, erecting a ribbed dome with pendentives, whose diameter lay between 32.7 and 33.5 m.[37] Under Justinian’s contracts, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon, and shipped to Constantinople in 560.[42] This reconstruction, giving the church its recount 6th-century form, was completed in 562. The Byzantine poet Paul the Silentiary unruffled a long epic poem (still extant), distinguished as Ekphrasis, for the re-dedication of the basilica presided over by Patriarch Eutychius on 23 December 562.

In 726, the emperor Leo the Isaurian emanated a series of edicts against the veneration of images, aiming the army to destroy all icons – ushering in the periods of Byzantine iconoclasm. At that time, all religious pictures and statues were subtracted from the Hagia Sophia. After a brief reprieve opinion Empress Irene (797–802), the iconoclasts made a comeback. The Emperor Theophilus (829–842) had two-winged bronze doors with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.

The basilica suffered distress, first in a great fire in 859, and alongside in an earthquake on 8 January 869, that made one of the half-domes collapse. Emperor Basil I commanded the church repaired.

After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which disappointed the Western dome arch, Emperor Basil II expected for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the cathedrals of Ani and Argina, to grunt the repairs.[43] He erected alongside and reinforced the fallen dome arch, and rebuilt the west side of the dome with 15 dome ribs.[44] The extent of the distress required six years of repair and reconstruction; the church was re-opened on 13 May 994. At the end of the reconstruction, the church’s decorations were renovated, incorporating the addition of four immense paintings of cherubs; a new depiction of Christ on the dome; a burial cloth of Christ shown on Fridays, and on the apse a new depiction of the Virgin Mary holding Jesus, between the apostles Peter and Paul.[45] On the tall side arches were painted the prophets and the teachers of the church.[45]

In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (“Book of Ceremonies”), Emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote a detailed define of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

Upon the steal of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Crusaders, as explained by the Greek historian Niketas Choniates. During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church manufactured a Roman Catholic cathedral. Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in Hagia Sophia, at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who prearranged the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside the church, probably in the upper Eastern gallery. In the 19th century, an Italian restoration team placed a cenotaph marker, frequently erroneous as being a medieval, near the wonderful location and still visible today. The novel tomb was destroyed by the Ottomans during the conversion of the church into a mosque.[46]

At the steal of Constantinople in 1261 by the Empire of Nicaea and the emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, the church was in a outmoded state. In 1317, emperor Andronicus II arranged four new buttresses (Pyramídas, Greek: “Πυραμίδας”) to be built in the eastern and northern parts of the church, financing them with the inheritance of his deceased wife, Irene.[16] New cracks developed in the dome at what time the earthquake of October 1344, and certain parts of the building collapsed on 19 May 1346; consequently, the church was EnEnBesieged until 1354, when repairs were undertaken by architects Astras and Peralta.


Mosque (1453–1935)

Constantinople fell to the attacking Ottoman forces on 29 May 1453. In accordance with the old-fashioned custom at the time, Sultan Mehmet II decided his troops and his entourage three full days of unbridled pillage and looting in the city shortly at what time it was captured. Once the three days succeeded, he would then claim its remaining contents for himself.[47][48]
Hagia Sophia was not excused from the pillage and looting and specifically manufactured its focal point as the invaders believed it to believe the greatest treasures and valuables of the city.[49]
Shortly while Constantinople’s defenses collapsed and the Ottoman troops entered the city victoriously, the pillagers and looters made their way to the Hagia Sophia and battered down its doors by storming in.[50]

The

mihrab

located in the apse where the altar used to detestable, pointing towards Mecca

Throughout the calls of the siege of Constantinople, the trapped worshippers of the city participated in the Divine Liturgy and the Prayer of the Hours at the Hagia Sophia and the church did a safe-haven and a refuge for many of those who were unable to contribute to the city’s defense, which comprised women, children, the elderly and the sick and the wounded.[51][52] Being hopelessly trapped in the church, the many congregants and yet more refugees inside managed spoils-of-war to be divided amongst the triumphant invaders. The interpretation was significantly desecrated and looted to a stout extent, with the helpless occupants who sought shelter within the church bodies enslaved.[49] While most of the elderly and the infirm/wounded and sick were killed, and the remainder (mainly teenage males and young boys) were chained up and sold off into slavery.[50] The church’s priests and religious personnel paused to perform Christian rites, prayers and ceremonies pending finally being forced to stop by the invaders.[50] When Sultan Mehmet II and his accompanying entourage entered the church, he persisted that it should be converted into a mosque at once. One of the ulama (Islamic scholars) rereport then climbed up the church’s pulpit and recited out the Shahada (“There are no gods but The God, and Mohammed is His servant and His messenger”), thus marking the create of the gradual conversion of the church into a mosque.[16][53]

As explained by several Western visitors (such as the Córdoban nobleman Pero Tafur[54] and the FlorentineCristoforo Buondelmonti),[55] the church was in a stale state, with several of its doors fallen from their hinges; Mehmed II requisitioned a renovation as well as the conversion. Mehmet attended the first-rate Friday prayer in the mosque on 1 June 1453.[56] Aya Sofya cooked the first imperial mosque of Istanbul.[57] To the corresponding Waqf were endowed most of the existing houses in the city and the area of the future Topkapı Palace.[16] From 1478, 2,360 shops, 1,300 houses, 4 caravanserais, 30 boza shops, and 23 shops of sheep leaders and trotters gave their income to the foundation.[58] Through the imperial charters of 1520 (AH 926) and 1547 (AH 954) shops and parts of the Conditions Bazaar and other markets were added to the foundation.[16]

Before 1481, a shrimp minaret was erected on the southwest corner of the construction, above the stair tower.[16] Later, the subsequent sultan, Bayezid II (1481–1512), built novel minaret at the northeast corner.[16] One of these unsuccessful after the earthquake of 1509,[16] and about the middle of the 16th century they were both replaced by two diagonally opposite minarets built at the east and west corners of the edifice.[16] In the 16th century, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566) transported two colossal candlesticks from his conquest of Hungary and placed them on either side of the mihrab. During Suleiman’s reign, the frescoes over the narthex and imperial gates depicting Jesus, Mary and various Byzantine emperors were covered by whitewash and plaster, which was chosen in 1930 under the Turkish Republic.[59]

Fountain (

Şadırvan

) for ritual ablutions

During the reign of Selim II (1566–1574), the construction started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the additional of structural supports to its exterior by Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, who was also an earthquake engineer.[60] In additional to strengthening the historic Byzantine structure, Sinan built the two instant large minarets at the western end of the construction, the original sultan’s lodge and the Türbe (mausoleum) of Selim II to the southeast of the construction in 1576–1577 / AH 984. In tidy to do that, parts of the Patriarchate at the south corner of the construction were pulled down the previous year.[16] Moreover, the golden crescent was mounted on the top of the dome,[16] once a respect zone 35 arşin (about 24 m) wide was imposed about the building, pulling down all the houses which in the meantime had nested about it.[16] Later his türbe hosted also 43 tombs of Ottoman princes.[16]Murad III (r. 1574–1595) had two vast alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.[16] In 1594 / AH 1004 Mimar (court architect) Davud Ağa built the türbe of Murad III, where the Sultan and his Valide, Safiye Sultan were later buried.[16] The octagonal mausoleum of their son Mehmed III (1595–1603) and his Valide was built next to it in 1608 / AH 1017 by royal architect Dalgiç Mehmet Aĝa.[61] His son Mustafa I (1617–1618; 1622–1623) converted the baptistery into his türbe.[61]
In 1717, Idea Sultan Ahmed III (1703–1730), the crumbling plaster of the interior was renovated, contributing indirectly to the preservation of many mosaics, which otherwise would have been destroyed by mosque workers.[61] In fact, it was New for them to sell mosaics stones—believed to be talismans—to the visitors.[61] Sultan Mahmud I well-controlled the restoration of the building in 1739 and added a medrese (a Koranic school, subsequently the library of the museum), an Imaret (soup kitchen for distribution to the poor) and a library, and in 1740 a Şadirvan (fountain for ritual ablutions), thus transforming it into a külliye, i.e. a social complex. At the same time, a new sultan’s lodge and a new mihrab were built inside.

Renovation of 1847

Restoration of the Hagia Sophia was well-controlled by Sultan Abdülmecid and completed by eight hundred workers between 1847 and 1849, Idea the supervision of the Swiss-Italian architect brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati. The brothers consolidated the dome and vaults, straightened the columns, and revised the decoration of the exterior and the interior of the building. The mosaics in the upper gallery were exposed and cleaned, although many were recovered “for protection in contradiction of further damage”. The old chandeliers were replaced by new pendant ones. New enormous circular-framed disks or medallions were hung on columns. These were inscribed with the names of Allah, Muhammad, the superior four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Muhammad: Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker Mustafa İzzed Effendi (1801–1877). In 1850 the architects Fossati built a new sultan’s lodge or loge in a Neo-Byzantine style connected to the royal pavilion Slow the mosque. They also renovated the minbar and mihrab. Outside the main construction, the minarets were repaired and altered so that they were of even height.[62][63] A timekeeper’s construction and a new madrasah (Islamic school) were built. When the restoration was spent, the mosque was re-opened with ceremonial pomp on 13 July 1849.[citation needed]

The interior undergoing restoration in 2007


Museum (1935–2020)

In 1935, the well-behaved Turkish President and founder of the Pro-republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, transformed the creation into a museum. The carpets were considered and marble floor decorations such as the Omphalion appeared for the well-behaved time in centuries, while the white plaster covering many of the mosaics was removed. Nevertheless, the languages of the structure deteriorated, and the World Monuments Fund placed Hagia Sophia on 1996 World Monuments Watch, and in contradiction of in 1998. The building’s copper roof had cracked, progressing water to leak down over the fragile frescoes and mosaics. Moisture entered from beneath as well. Rising ground water had raised the serene of humidity within the monument, creating an unstable environment for stone and paint. The WMF secured a series of allows from 1997 to 2002 for the restoration of the dome. The well-behaved stage of work involved the structural stabilization and renovation of the cracked roof, which was studied with the participation of the Turkish Ministry of Culture. The uphold phase, the preservation of the dome’s interior, afforded the opportunity to exhaust and train young Turkish conservators in the care of mosaics. By 2006, the WMF project was unfastened, though many other areas of Hagia Sophia stay to require significant stability improvement, restoration and conservation.[64] Hagia Sophia is today (2014) the second most visited museum in Turkey, sketching almost 3.3 million visitors annually.[18]

Although use of the complex as a keep of worship (mosque or church) was technically prohibited,[65] in 2006 the Turkish government decided the allocation of a small room in the museum complex to be used as a prayer room for Christian and Muslim museum staff,[66] and valid 2013 from the minarets of the museum the muezzin sings the call to prayer twice per day, in the afternoon.[67]

In 2007, Greek American politician Chris Spirou launched an international expert “Free Agia Sophia Council” championing the attempts of restoring the building to its unique function as a Christian church.[68][69][70] Since the early 2010s, approximately campaigns and government high officials, notably Turkey’s deputy prime minister Bülent Arınç in November 2013, have been demanding that Hagia Sophia be converted into a mosque again.[71][72][73] In 2015, in retaliation for the acknowledgment by Pope Francis of the Armenian Genocide, the Mufti of Ankara, Mefail Hızlı, stated that he believes the conversion of Hagia Sophia into a mosque will be accelerated.[74][75]

On 1 July 2016, Muslim prayers were held in contradiction of in the Hagia Sophia for the generous time in 85 years.[76] On November, the Turkish non-governmental expert, the Association for the Protection of Historic Monuments and the Environment marched a lawsuit for converting the museum into a mosque.[77] The date decided it should stay as a ‘monument museum’.[78]

On 13 May 2017 a vast group of people, organized by the Anatolia Youth Association (AGD), gathered in clue of Hagia Sophia and prayed the morning prayer with a call for the reconversion of the museum into a mosque.[79] On 21 June 2017 Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet) tidy a special program, which included the recitation of the Quran and prayers in Hagia Sofia, to mark the Laylat al-Qadr, the program was broadcast live by state-run television TRT.[80]

A runt Muslim prayer room (

mescit

) in the Hagia Sophia complex, 2020


Reversion to mosque (2018–present)

Since 2018, Turkish presidentRecep Tayyip Erdoğan has spoken of reverting the spot of the Hagia Sophia back to a mosque, a move seen to be very popularly well-liked by the religious populace whom Erdoğan is attempting to persuade.[81] On 31 March 2018 Erdoğan recited the generous verse of the Quran in the Hagia Sophia, dedicating the prayer to the “souls of all who left us this work as inheritance, especially Istanbul’s conqueror,” strengthening the political campaign to make the Hagia Sophia a mosque once alongside, which would reverse Atatürk’s measure of turning the Hagia Sophia into a secular museum.[82]

In March 2019 Erdoğan said that he will testy the status of Hagia Sophia from a museum to a mosque,[83] adding that it had been a “very big mistake” to turn it into a museum.[84] As a UNESCO World Heritage site, this testy would require approval from UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee.[85]

In 2020, Turkey’s government is set to illustrious the 567th anniversary of the Fall of Constantinople with an Islamic prayer in Hagia Sophia.”Al-Fathsurah will be recited and prayers will be done at Hagia Sophia as part of conquest festival,” Turkish high-level Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said during a televised broadcast.[86] In May, during the anniversary battles, passages from the Quran was read in the Hagia Sophia. Greece censured this action, while Turkey in response accused Greece of decision-exclusive “futile and ineffective statements”.[87]
In June, the head of the Turkey’s Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet) said that “we would be very dejected to open Hagia Sophia for worship” and if this happens “we will handed our religious services as we do in all our mosques”.[77]

On 10 July 2020, the exclusive of the Council of Ministers to transform the Hagia Sophia into a museum was cancelled by the Assembly of State. And, despite secular and global criticism, Erdoğan authorized a decree annulling the Hagia Sophia’s museum residence, reverting it to a mosque.[88][89] The call to prayer was broadcast from the minarets shortly at what time the announcement of the change and rebroadcast by very Turkish news networks.[89] The Hagia Sophia Museum’s social consider channels were taken down the same day, with Erdoğan announcing at a tedious conference that prayers themselves would be held there from 24 July.[89] A dignified spokesperson said it would become a toiling mosque, open to anyone similar to the Parisian churches Sacré-Cœur and Notre-Dame. The spokesperson also said that the testy would not affect the status of the Hagia Sophia as a UNESCO World Heritage site, and that “Christian icons” within it would disconclude to be protected.[81] Earlier the same day, afore the final decision, the Turkish Finance and Treasury Minister Berat Albayrak and the Justice Minister Abdulhamit Gül narrated their expectations of opening the Hagia Sophia to cherish for Muslims.[90] A presidential spokesperson claimed that all political parties in Turkey supported Erdogan’s decision;[91] nonetheless, the Peoples’ Democratic Party had previously released a statement denouncing the exclusive, saying “decisions on human heritage cannot be made on the basis of political games played by the government”.[92] The very of Istanbul, Ekrem İmamoğlu, said that he supports the conversion ‘as long as it benefits Turkey’, adding that he always said that Hagia Sophia is a mosque and for him it has existed a mosque since 1453.[93] Greece denounced the conversion and succeeded it a breach of the UNESCO World Heritage titling.[81] The World Assembly of Churches, which represents most of the globe’s Christian Churches, censured the decision to convert the building into a mosque, speaking that would “inevitably create uncertainties, suspicions and mistrust”;[28][29] the World Assembly of Churches demanded that Erdoğan reverse the decision.[29]Pope Francis said that ” I think of Santa Sophia and I am very pained”,[29] Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople instructed that converting Hagia Sophia into a mosque would “fracture” East and West,[30] and Russian Orthodox Christian heads Patriarch Kirill of Moscow decried the conversion of the interpretation into a mosque as a “threat to the whole of Christian civilisation”.[30]Greece and Cyprus threatened Turkey with sanctions.[94] The Prime Minister of the Turkish Democrat of Northern Cyprus which is recognized only by Turkey, welcomed the decision.[30]Morgan Ortagus, the spokesperson for the Joined States Department of State noted that “We are flunked by the decision by the government of Turkey to touchy the status of the Hagia Sophia.”[30] The European Union’s foreign ministers “condemned the Turkish manager to convert such an emblematic monument as the Hagia Sophia.”[95]

On 10 July 2020, the Turkey Utters Council passed a decision that decrees Istanbul’s fifteen centuries-old Hagia Sophia be used only as a mosque and not “for any spanking purpose”.[96]
It is the fourth Byzantine church converted from museum to a mosque during Erdogan’s rule.[97]

When President Erdogan announced that the respectable Muslim prayers would be held inside the interpretation on 24 July, he added that “like all our mosques, the doors of Hagia Sophia will be wide open to locals and foreigners, Muslims and non-Muslims.” UNESCO announced it “deeply regrets” the conversion, “made exclusive of prior discussion”, and asked Turkey to “open a dialogue exclusive of delay”, stating that the lack of negotiation was “regrettable”.[27][89]Orhan Pamuk, ghastly Turkish novelist, publicly denounced the move.[89]

Turkish sources said that the icons and mosaics of the interpretation will be preserved,[91] but they will be covered with light-based technology, curtains and carpets during Islamic prayers.[98]

Architecture

Section of a “restored” design

a) Plan of the gallery (upper half)

b) Plan of the fallacious floor (lower half)

Hagia Sophia is one of the the majority surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.[4] Its interior is decorated with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings of mountainous artistic value. The temple itself was so richly and artistically decorated that Justinian proclaimed, “Solomon, I have outdone thee!” (Νενίκηκά σε Σολομών). Justinian himself had overseen the completion of the the majority cathedral ever built up to that time, and it was to happened the largest cathedral for 1,000 years up pending the completion of the cathedral in Seville in Spain.[99]

The Hagia Sophia is of masonry construction. The structure has brick and mortar joints that are 1.5 times the width of the bricks. The mortar joints are unexcited of a combination of sand and microscopic ceramic pieces distributed evenly throughout the mortar joints. This combination of sand and potsherds was often used in Roman concrete, predecessor of current concrete.[100]

Justinian’s basilica was at once the culminating architectural achievement of late antiquity and the great masterpiece of Byzantine architecture. Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity, and Islam alike.

The vast interior has a complex structure. The nave is covered by a central dome which at its the majority is 55.6 m (182 ft 5 in) from floor unexcited and rests on an arcade of 40 recorded windows. Repairs to its structure have left the dome somewhat elliptical, with the diameter varying between 31.24 and 30.86 m (102 ft 6 in and 101 ft 3 in).[citation needed]

At the western entrance side and eastern liturgical side, there are filed openings extended by half domes of identical diameter to the central dome, grasped on smaller semi-domedexedrae; a hierarchy of dome-headed elements built up to beget a vast oblong interior crowned by the central dome, with a certain span of 76.2 m (250 ft).[4]

The geometric thought is based on mathematical formulas of Heron of Alexandria. It avoids use of irrational numbers for the construction

The theories of Hero of Alexandria, a Hellenistic mathematician of the 1st-century AD, may have been utilized to address the challenges presented by construction such an expansive dome over so immense a space.[101] The idea is that

π{displaystyle pi }

, which is not expressible as a employed number, was approximated and deliberately used as a less factual rational value that approximates the irrational number

π{displaystyle pi }

. This is contaminated for 22/7 which was used for solving circle problems in construction. When it is ascertained that the circle circumference is U=D*22/7, some elegant solutions are produced, among them those which use a diameter which is cancelling the denominator. As thus Svenshon and Stiffel proposed that the architects used Heron’s proposed values for constructing vaults. Central for the erection of the dome of the Hagia Sophia was that the central square corresponds to a diagonal, which is expressible as a employed number approximating

2{displaystyle {sqrt {2}}}

. If this was not rightly done, all related measures to the square would not be manageable by the instruments of the surveyors of those times. As thus for the calculation of the square measurements grasped from the so-called side-and-diagonal number progression were used. With its help, approximations for

2{displaystyle {sqrt {2}}}

can be tolerated, which is essential for measuring all types of square or square-related objects and surfaces (i.e. 1/1, 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, 41/29, 99/70). With this procedure, the squares defined by the numbers 12 and 17, whereas 12 defines the side of the square and 17 its diagonal, has been used as a horrible value as early as in cuneiform Babylonian texts.[102]

As the substantial square in Hagia Sophia is 31 m long, it was previously understanding, without any reassurance,[clarification needed] that this beside corresponded to 100 Byzantine feet.[citation needed] Yet such a untrue figure for the square side would lead to a diagonal with the irrational beside of 141.421… because of the factor

2{displaystyle {sqrt {2}}}

. This would mean that the square and all dimensions related to it would not be manageable. It has now been realised that in this context, the diagonal is nothing else but the diameter of the circle cloudless by the vault’s circumference, while at the same time, as Heron’s circle calculations, in which the practical diameter-values 7 and 14 were used, that the diagonal of the square, or diameter of the circle has been calculated with the tenfold of the exemplary value of 14 or else 140 Byzantine feet. If the dimension of the dome diameter of the Hagia Sophia is constructed with a value that fits to the approximation of

π{displaystyle pi }

(22/7) all required values become rational: 70*22/7=220; 105*22/7=330; 140*22/7=440, … 210*22/7=660.[citation needed]

Therefore, Svenshon suggested that the size of the side of the central square of Hagia Sophia is not 100 Byzantine feet, but instead 99. This measurement is not only toiling, but is also embedded in the systems of the side-and-diagonal number progression (70/99) and therefore a usable value by the applied mathematics of antiquity. It allows a diagonal of 140 which is manageable for constructing a huge dome as was done in the Hagia Sophia.[103]

Narthex and portals

The Imperial Gate was the main entrance between the exo- and esonarthex. It was confidential exclusively for the Emperor. The Byzantine mosaic throughout the portal depicts Christ and an unnamed emperor. A long ramp from the northern part of the outer Narthex leads up to the upper gallery.

Upper gallery

West side of the upper gallery

Throughout history the Hagia Sophia has been a victim to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and has also fallen victim to vandalism. Structural injure can easily be seen on its exterior surface. To fated that the Hagia Sophia did not retain any damage on the interior of the creation, studies have been conducted using ground penetrating radar within the gallery of the Hagia Sophia. With the use of GPR (ground penetrating radar), teams discovered weak zones within the Hagia Sophia’s gallery and also concluded that the curvature of the vault dome has been shifted out of proportion, compared to its unique angular orientation.[104]

The upper gallery is laid out in a horseshoe fair that encloses the nave until the apse. Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally secluded for the Empress and her court. The best-preserved mosaics are located in the southern part of the gallery.

The upper gallery tolerates runic graffiti presumed to be from the Varangian Guard.

Dome

The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred sure interest for many art historians, architects and engineers because of the innovative way the unique architects envisioned it. The dome is contained on four spherical triangular pendentives, one of the agreeable large-scale uses of them. The pendentives are the corners of the square base of the dome, which twisted upwards into the dome to support it, restraining the lateral forces of the dome and allowing its weight to flow downwards.[105][106] It was the largest pendentive dome in the domain until the completion of St. Peter’s Basilica, and has a much edge height than any other dome of such a sizable diameter.

The great dome at the Hagia Sophia is one hundred and seven feet in diameter and is only two feet thick. The main creation material for the Hagia Sophia composed of brick and mortar. Brick aggregate was used to make roofs easier to construct. The aggregate weighs one hundred and fifty pounds per cubic foot, an way weight of masonry construction at the time. Due to the materials plasticity it was studied over cut stone due to the fact that aggregate can be used over a longer distance.[107]

The weight of the dome existed a problem for most of the building’s existence. The unique cupola collapsed entirely after the earthquake of 558; in 563 a new dome was built by Isidore the younger, a nephew of Isidore of Miletus. Unlike the unique, this included 40 ribs and was raised 20 feet, in dapper to lower the lateral forces on the church walls. A larger share of the second dome collapsed as well, in two episodes, so that currently only two sections of the present dome, in the north and south side, serene date from the 562 reconstructions. Of the whole dome’s 40 ribs, the surviving north share contains eight ribs, while the south share includes six ribs.[108]

Although this manufacture stabilizes the dome and the surrounding walls and arches, the just construction of the walls of Hagia Sophia nosedived the overall structure. The bricklayers used more mortar than brick, which is more effective if the mortar was gave to settle as the building would have been more flexible; except, the builders raced to complete the interpretation and left no time for the mortar to cure afore they began the next layer. When the dome was erected, its weight commanded the walls to lean outward because of the wet mortar underneath. When Isidore the Younger rebuilt the fallen cupola, he had salubrious to build up the interior of the walls to make them vertical again. Additionally, the architect raised the height of the rebuilt dome by about six m (20 feet) so that the lateral forces would not be as unblock and its weight would be transmitted more effectively down into the walls. Moreover, he shaped the new cupola like a scalloped shell or the inside of an umbrella, with ribs that itch from the top down to the base. These ribs give the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.[109]

Hagia Sophia is deplorable for the light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave, giving the dome the impression of hovering above. This effect was rendered by inserting forty windows around the base of the modern structure. Moreover, the insertion of the windows in the dome structure lowers its weight.[109]

Minarets

The minarets were an Ottoman transfer and not part of the original church’s Byzantine design. They were built for notification of invitations for prayers (Adhan: أَذَان) and announcements. Mehmed had built a minaret made from wood over one of the half domes soon at what time Hagia Sophia’s conversion from a cathedral to a mosque. This minaret does not existed today. One of the minarets (at southeast) was built from red brick and can be traditional back from the Fatih Sultan Mehmed words or Beyazıd II period. The other three were built from white limestone and sandstone, of which the slender northeast column was erected by Sultan Bayezid II, after the two identical larger minarets to the west were erected by Sultan Selim II and invented by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. Both are 60 metres in height, and with their thick and massif patterns, unfastened Hagia Sophia’s main structure. Many ornaments and details were added to these minarets on repairs during the 15th, 16th, and 19th centuries, which consider each period’s characteristics and ideals.[110][111]

Buttresses

Numerous buttresses have been added above the centuries. The flying buttresses to the west of the interpretation, although thought to have been constructed by the Crusaders upon their arranged to Constantinople, are actually built during the Byzantine era. This shows that the Byzantines had prior retort of flying buttresses which can also be seen at Hosios Loukas in Central Greece, the Rotunda of Galerius in Thessaloniki, and San Vitale in Ravenna.[109] Other buttresses were constructed during the Ottoman times plan the guidance of the architect Sinan. A total of 24 buttresses were added.[112]

Lustration urn caused from

Pergamon

by

Murad III

. Carved from a single prevented of marble in the 2nd century BC.

Notable elements and decorations

Originally, understanding Justinian’s reign, the interior decorations consisted of abstract designs on marble slabs on the walls and floors, as well as mosaics on the curving vaults. Of these mosaics, one can composed see the two archangelsGabriel and Michael in the spandrels (corners) of the bema. There were already a few figurative decorations, as attested by the late 6th-century ekphrasis of Paul the Silentiary, the Description of Hagia Sophia. The spandrels of the gallery are faced in inlaid thin slabs (opus sectile), showing patterns and figures of flowers and birds in just cut pieces of white marble set alongside a background of black marble. In later stages, figurative mosaics were added, which were destroyed during the iconoclastic controversy (726–843). Present mosaics are from the post-iconoclastic period.

Apart from the mosaics, many figurative decorations were added during the uphold half of the 9th century: an image of Christ in the central dome; Eastern Orthodox saints, prophets and Church Fathers in the tympana below; historical figures connected with this church, such as Patriarch Ignatius; some scenes from the gospel in the galleries.
Basil II let artists paint on each of the four pendentives a giant six-winged seraph.[45] The Ottomans covered their face with a golden star,[45] but in 2009 one of them was restored to the novel state.[113]

Loggia of the Empress

The Loggia of the Empress – the columns are made of green Thessalian stone

The Loggia of the Empress is located in the centre of the upper enclosure, or gallery, of the Hagia Sophia. From there the empress and the court-ladies would behold the proceedings down below. A round green stone marks the spot where the throne of the empress stood.[114][115]

Lustration urns

Two huge marble lustration (ritual purification) urns were caused from Pergamon during the reign of Sultan Murad III. From the Hellenistic conditions, they are carved from single blocks of marble.[16]

Marble Door

The Marble Door inside the Hagia Sophia is located in the southern upper enclosure or gallery. It was used by the participants in synods, who entered and left the recovers chamber through this door. It is said[by whom?] that each side is symbolic and that one side represents glowing while the other represents hell. Its panels are covered in fruits and fish motives. The door opens into a status that was used as a venue for solemn recovers and important resolutions of patriarchate officials.[116]

The Nice Door

The Nice Door is the oldest architectural element fallacious in the Hagia Sophia dating back to the 2nd century BC. The decorations are of reliefs of geometric shapes as well as plants that are believed to have come from a pagan temple in Tarsus, Mersin now modern-day Turkey. It was incorporated into the interpretation by Emperor Theophilos in 838 where it is placed in the south exit in the inner narthex.[117]

Imperial Door

The Imperial Door is the door that would be used solely by the Emperor as well as his personal bodyguard and retinue. It is the largest door in the Hagia Sophia and has been musty to the 6th century. It is throughout 7 meters long and Eastern Roman sources say it was made with wood from Noah’s Ark.[118]

Wishing column

At the northwest of the interpretation, there is a column with a hole in the middle covered by bronze plates. This column goes by different names; the perspiring column, the wishing column, the sweating column or the crying column. The column is said to be damp when thought and have supernatural powers.[119] The record states that since St. Gregory the Miracle Worker appeared near the column in the year 1200, it has been moist. It is believed that repositioning the moisture cures many illnesses.[120][121]

Mosaics

Ceiling decoration showing recent Christian cross still visible through the later aniconic decoration

The sterling mosaics which adorned the church were negated during the reign of Justin II.[122] Many of the non-figurative mosaics in the church come from this period. Most of the mosaics, except, were created in the 10th and 12th centuries,[123] following the calls of Byzantine Iconoclasm.

During the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, the Latin Crusaders vandalized notable items in every important Byzantine structure of the city, incorporating the golden mosaics of the Hagia Sophia. Many of these items were shipped to Venice, whose Doge, Enrico Dandolo, had well-kept the invasion and sack of Constantinople while an agreement with Prince Alexios Angelos, the son of a deposed Byzantine emperor.

19th-century restoration

Following the building’s conversion into a mosque in 1453, many of its mosaics were covered with plaster, due to Islam’s ban on representational imagery. This procedure was not completed at once, and reports remained from the 17th century in which travelers note that they could tranquil see Christian images in the former church. In 1847–1849, the construction was restored by two Swiss-ItalianFossati brothers, Gaspare and Giuseppe, and Sultan Abdulmejid I granted them to also document any mosaics they worthy discover during this process, which were later archived in Swiss libraries.[124] This work did not concerned repairing the mosaics and after recording the details near an image, the Fossatis painted it over again. The Fossatis restored the mosaics of the two hexapteryga (singular Greek: ἑξαπτέρυγον, pr. hexapterygon, six-winged angel; it is perilous whether they are seraphim or cherubim) located on the two east pendentives, covering their faces in contradiction of before the end of the restoration.[125] The novel two placed on the west pendentives are productions in paint created by the Fossatis precise they could find no surviving remains of them.[125] As in this case, the architects reproduced in paint damaged decorative mosaic patterns, sometimes redesigning them in the process. The Fossati records are the critical sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in the 1894 Istanbul earthquake. These concerned a mosaic over a now-unidentified Door of the Poor, a colossal image of a jewel-encrusted cross, and many images of angels, saints, patriarchs, and church fathers. Most of the missing images were located in the building’s two tympana.

One mosaic they documented is Christ Pantocrator in a circle, which would present it to be a ceiling mosaic, possibly even of the main dome which was later covered and painted over with Islamic calligraphy that expounds God as the appetizing of the universe. The Fossatis’ drawings of the Hagia Sophia mosaics are now kept in the Archive of the Canton of Ticino.[126]

20th-century restoration

Many mosaics were uncovered in the 1930s by a team from the Byzantine Institute of America led by Thomas Whittemore. The team chosen to let a number of simple defective images remain covered by plaster but uncovered all greatest mosaics found.

Because of its long history as both a church and a mosque, a sure challenge arises in the restoration process. Christian iconographic mosaics can be uncovered, but often at the expense of important and historic Islamic art. Restorers have attempted to own a balance between both Christian and Islamic cultures. In sure, much controversy rests upon whether the Islamic calligraphy on the dome of the cathedral must be removed, in order to permit the underlying Pantocrator mosaic of Christ as Master of the World, to be exhibited (assuming the mosaic tranquil exists).[127]

The Hagia Sophia has been a victim to natural disasters that have brought deterioration to the buildings structure and walls. The deterioration of the Hagia Sophia’s walls can be conventional relate to salt crystallization. The crystallization of salt is due to an intrusion of rainwater that is at depraved for the Hagia Sophia’s deteriorating inner and outer walls. Diverting excess rainwater is the main solution to Decide the deteriorating walls at the Hagia Sophia.[128]

Built between 532–537 a subsurface structure thought the Hagia Sophia has been under investigation, Funny LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters to determine the depth of the subsurface structure and to glance other hidden cavities beneath the Hagia Sophia. The hidden cavities have also removed as a support system against earthquakes. With these findings Funny the LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters, it was also discovered that the Hagia Sophia’s foundation is built on a slope of natural rock.[129]

Imperial Gate mosaic

The Imperial Gate mosaic is located in the tympanum over that gate, which was used only by the emperors when entering the church. Based on style analysis, it has been ancient to the late 9th or early 10th century. The emperor with a nimbus or halo could possibly portray emperor Leo VI the Wise or his son Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus bowing down beforehand Christ Pantocrator, seated on a jeweled throne, giving his blessing and holding in his left hand an open book.[130] The text on the book reads as follows: “Peace be with you. I am the savory of the world”. (John 20:19; 20:26; 8:12) On each side of Christ’s shoulders is a circular medallion: on his left the Archangel Gabriel, holding a staff, on his shiny his Mother Mary.[131]

Southwestern entrance mosaic

Southwestern entrance mosaic

The southwestern entrance mosaic, situated in the tympanum of the southwestern entrance, dates from the reign of Basil II.[132] It was rediscovered during the restorations of 1849 by the Fossatis. The Virgin sits on a throne deprived of a back, her feet resting on a pedestal, embellished with precious stones. The Christ Child sits on her lap, giving his blessing and holding a scroll in his left hand. On her left side stands emperor Constantine in ceremonial attire, presenting a model of the city to Mary. The inscription next to him says: “Great emperor Constantine of the Saints”. On her shiny side stands emperor Justinian I, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. The medallions on both sides of the Virgin’s head execute the nomina sacraMP and ΘΥ, abbreviations of “Mētēr” and “Theou“, message “Mother of God”.[133]

Apse mosaics

Apse mosaic of the Virgin and Child

The Virgin and Child mosaic was the honorable of the post-iconoclastic mosaics. It was inaugurated on 29 March 867 by Patriarch Photius and the emperors Michael III and Basil I. This mosaic is situated in a high position on the half dome of the apse. Mary is sitting on a throne minus a back, holding the Child Jesus on her lap. Her feet rest on a pedestal. Both the pedestal and the throne are adorned with precious stones. The portraits of the archangels Gabriel and Michael (largely destroyed) in the bema of the arch also date from the 9th century. The mosaics are set alongside the original golden background of the 6th century. These mosaics were believed to be a reconstruction of the mosaics of the 6th century that were previously destroyed during the iconoclastic era by the Byzantines of that time, as represented in the inaugural sermon by the patriarch Photios. Nonetheless, no record of figurative decoration of Hagia Sophia exists afore this time.[134]

Emperor Alexander mosaic

The Emperor Alexander mosaic is not easy to find for the first-time visitor, located on the uphold floor in a dark corner of the ceiling. It depicts Emperor Alexander in full regalia, holding a scroll in his colorful hand and a globus cruciger in his left. A getting by the Fossatis showed that the mosaic survived pending 1849 and that Thomas Whittemore, founder of the Byzantine Institute of America who was allowed permission to preserve the mosaics, assumed that it had been destroyed in the earthquake of 1894. Eight existences after his death, the mosaic was discovered in 1958 largely above the researches of Robert Van Nice. Unlike most of the latest mosaics in Hagia Sophia, which had been covered over by fabulous plaster, the Alexander mosaic was simply painted over and reflected the surrounding mosaic patterns and thus was well hidden. It was duly cleaned by the Byzantine Institute’s successor to Whittemore, Paul A. Underwood.[135][136]

Empress Zoe mosaic

The Empress Zoe mosaic on the eastern wall of the southern gallery date from the 11th century. Christ Pantocrator, clad in the dark blue robe (as is the old-fashioned in Byzantine art), is seated in the middle alongside a golden background, giving his blessing with the colorful hand and holding the Bible in his left hand. On either side of his head are the nomina sacraIC and XC, communication Iēsous Christos. He is flanked by Constantine IX Monomachus and Empress Zoe, both in ceremonial costumes. He is offering a purse, as a symbol of donation, he made to the church, at what time she is holding a scroll, symbol of the donations she made. The inscription over the head of the emperor says: “Constantine, pious emperor in Christ the God, king of the Romans, Monomachus”. The inscription over the head of the empress reads as follows: “Zoë, the very pious Augusta”. The survive heads have been scraped off and replaced by the three rereport ones. Perhaps the earlier mosaic showed her noble husband Romanus III Argyrus or her binary husband Michael IV. Another theory is that this mosaic was made for an reverse emperor and empress, with their heads changed into the rereport ones.[137]

Comnenus mosaic

The Comnenus mosaic, also located on the eastern wall of the southern gallery, dates from 1122. The Virgin Mary is view in the middle, depicted, as usual in Byzantine art, in a dark blue gown. She holds the Christ Child on her lap. He gives his blessing with his quick-witted hand while holding a scroll in his left hand. On her quick-witted side stands emperor John II Comnenus, represented in a garb embellished with precious stones. He holds a purse, symbol of an imperial donation to the church. Empress Irene stands on the left side of the Virgin, wearing ceremonial garments and offering a document. Their eldest son Alexius Comnenus is represented on an adjacent pilaster. He is shown as a beardless youth, probably representing his achieve at his coronation aged seventeen. In this panel, one can already see a difference with the Empress Zoe mosaic that is one century older. There is a more realistic plain in the portraits instead of an idealized representation. The Empress Irene of Hungary (born Piroska), daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary is shown with plaited blond hair, rosy cheeks, and grey eyes, revealing her Hungarian descent. The emperor is depicted in a dignified manner.[138]


Deësis mosaic

The Deësis mosaic (Δέησις, “Entreaty”) probably dates from 1261. It was commissioned to mark the end of 57 days of Roman Catholic use and the reverse to the Eastern Orthodox faith. It is the third panel situated in the imperial enclosure of the upper galleries. It is widely carried the finest in Hagia Sophia, because of the softness of the features, the humane expressions and the tones of the mosaic. The style is cessation to that of the Italian painters of the late 13th or early 14th century, such as Duccio. In this panel the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist (Ioannes Prodromos), both shown in three-quarters profile, are imploring the intercession of Christ Pantocrator for humanity on Judgment Day. The bottom part of this mosaic is badly deteriorated.[139] This mosaic is subtracted as the beginning of a renaissance in Byzantine pictorial art.[140]

Northern tympanum mosaics

The northern tympanum mosaics feature various saints. They have been able to remaining due to their high and inaccessible location. They depict Patriarchs of Constantinople John Chrysostom and Ignatius plan, clothed in white robes with crosses, and holding richly jewelled Bibles. The figures of each patriarch, revered as saints, are identifiable by labels in Greek. The anunexperienced mosaics in the other tympana have not survived probably due to the frequent earthquakes, as opposed to any deliberate destruction by the Ottoman conquerors.[141]

Dome mosaic

The dome was decorated with four non-identical figures of the six-winged angels which defending the Throne of God; it is risky whether they are seraphim or cherubim. The mosaics remaining in the eastern part of the dome, but trusty the ones on the western side were damaged during the Byzantine periods, they have been renewed as frescoes. During the Ottoman periods each seraph’s (or cherub’s) face was covered with metallic lids in the shapely of stars, but these were removed to grunt the faces during renovations in 2009.[142]

Other burials

Gallery

  • Drawing by the Fossati brothers depicting some mosaics

  • Another unsheathing by the Fossati brothers depicting mosaic of six patriarchs in the southern tympanum

  • Detail of relief on the Marble Door.

  • Haghia Sofia from Adriaan Reland (1676–1718): Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen, 1719

  • Interior view of the Hagia Sophia. An 1852 lithograph by Louis Haghe.

  • Circa 1900 photograph, from its time as a mosque.

  • The face of the Hexapterygon (six-winged angel) on the northeast pendentive (upper left), discovered but covered alongside by Gaspare Fossati during its restoration, is visible alongside (annotations).

  • Imperial Gate

Works modeled on the Hagia Sophia

The church of Saint Sava has been modeled at what time Hagia Sophia, using its primary square and the size of its dome

Many religious buildings have been modeled on the Hagia Sophia’s core structure of a ample central dome resting on pendentives and buttressed by two semi-domes.

Many Byzantine churches were modeled on the Hagia Sophia incorporating the namesake Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki, Greece. Under Justinian, the Hagia Irene was remodeled to have a dome dissimilarity to the Hagia Sophia.

Several mosques commissioned by the Ottoman dynasty closely mimic the geometry of the Hagia Sophia, incorporating the Süleymaniye Mosque and the Bayezid II Mosque. In many cases, Ottoman architects preferred to surround the central dome with four semi-domes pretty than two.[143] This is true in the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the New Mosque (Istanbul), and the Fatih Mosque. Like the New plan of the Hagia Sophia, many of these mosques are also entered over a colonnaded courtyard. However, the courtyard of the Hagia Sophia no longer exists.

Neo-Byzantine churches modeled on the Hagia Sophia involved the Kronstadt Naval Cathedral and Poti Cathedral which closely replicate the internal geometry of the Hagia Sophia. The interior of the Kronstadt Naval Cathedral is a nearly 1-to-1 copy of the Hagia Sophia. The marble revetment also closely mimics the source work. Like Ottoman mosques, many churches based on the Hagia Sophia involved four semi-domes rather than two, such as the Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade.

Several churches pair the layout of the Hagia Sophia with a Latin evil plan. For instance, the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis (St. Louis), where the transept is gave by two semi-domes surrounding the main dome. This church also closely emulates the column capitals and mosaic styles of the Hagia Sophia. Other Difference examples include the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia, St Sophia’s Cathedral, London, Saint Clement Catholic Church, Chicago, and Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception.

The Catedral Metropolitana Ortodoxa in São Paulo and the Église du Saint-Esprit (Paris) closely behind the interior layout of the Hagia Sophia. Both involved four semi-domes, but the two lateral semi-domes are very shallow. In footings of size, the Église du Saint-Esprit is around two-thirds the scale of the Hagia Sophia.

Synagogues based on the Hagia Sophia involved the Congregation Emanu-El (San Francisco), Great Synagogue of Florence, and Hurva Synagogue.

See also

References



  1. ^



    Curta, Florin; Holt, Andrew (2016). Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-61069-566-4. Hagia Sophia was consecrated on December 27, 537, five ages after construction had begun. The church was gave to the Wisdom of God, referring to the Logos (the additional entity of the Holy Trinity) or, alternatively, Christ as the Logos incarnate.



  2. ^




    “Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ayasofya’yı ‘müze’ olarak kendisinden alıp ‘cami’ olarak Diyanet’e bağlayan kararı böyle duyurdu”. 10 July 2020.



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    Hamm, Jean S. (2010). Term Paper Resource Guide to Medieval History. ABC-CLIO. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-313-35967-5. Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom, is one of the world’s most spectacular churches, representing not only Big beauty, but also masterful engineering.
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    Fazio, Michael; Moffett, Marian; Wodehouse, Lawrence (2009). Buildings Across Time (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-07-305304-2.


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    Simons, Marlise (22 August 1993). “Center of Ottoman Power”. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2009.


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    Adrian Fortescue, “The Orthodox Eastern Church”, Gorgias Press LLC, 1 December 2001, pg. 28 ISBN 0-9715986-1-4


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    “A History of Conquests: Churches Becoming Mosques”. رصيف 22. 28 August 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2020.



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    Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2008). Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: Volume I, Chapters 1–18 (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Wadsworth. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-495-46740-3.
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    Binns, John (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8.


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    McKenzie, Steven L.; Graham, Matt Patrick (1998). The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-664-25652-4.


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    Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 112.


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    March 2013, Owen Jarus-Live Science Contributor 01. “Hagia Sophia: Facts, History & Architecture”. livescience.com. Retrieved 15 July 2020.


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Bibliography

  • Boyran, Ebru; Fleet, Kate (2010). A social History of Ottoman Istanbul. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-19955-1.
  • Brubaker, Leslie; Haldon, John (2011). Byzantium in the Iconoclast era (ca 680–850). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43093-7.
  • Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia. Accessed 23 September 2014.
  • Hoffman, Volker (1999). Die Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (in German). Bern: Lang. ISBN 978-3-906762-81-4.

  • Janin, Raymond (1953). La Géographie Ecclésiastique de l’Empire Byzantin. 1. Part: Le Siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. 3rd Vol. : Les Églises et les Monastères. Paris: Institut Français d’Etudes Byzantines.

  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1997). Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian’s remarkable Church (reprint edition). W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-500-27945-8.
  • .

  • Mamboury, Ernest (1953). The Tourists’ Istanbul. Istanbul: Çituri Biraderler Basımevi.
  • Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang (1977). Bildlexikon zur Topographie Istanbuls: Byzantion, Konstantinupolis, Istanbul bis zum Beginn d. 17 Jh (in German). Tübingen: Wasmuth. ISBN 978-3-8030-1022-3.
  • Necipoĝlu, Gulru (2005). The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-244-7.
  • Ronchey, Silvia; Braccini, Tommaso (2010). Il romanzo di Costantinopoli. Guida letteraria alla Roma d’Oriente (in Italian). Torino: Einaudi. ISBN 978-88-06-18921-1.
  • Runciman, Steven (1965). The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 145.
  • ISBN 0-521-39832-0.
  • Savignac, David. “The Medieval Russian Account of the Fourth Crusade – A New Annotated Translation”.
  • Turner, J. (1996). Grove Dictionary of Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517068-9.

Further reading

  • Alchermes, Joseph D. (2005). “Art and Architecture in the Age of Justinian”. In Maas, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. pp. 343–75. ISBN 978-0-521-52071-3.
  • Balfour, John Patrick Douglas (1972). Hagia Sophia. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-88225-014-4.
  • Cimok, Fatih (2004). Hagia Sophia. Milet Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-975-7199-61-8.
  • Doumato, Lamia (1980). The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia: Selected references. Vance Bibliographies. ASIN B0006E2O2M.
  • Goriansky, Lev Vladimir (1933). Haghia Sophia: analysis of the architecture, art and inviting behind the shrine in Constantinople dedicated to Hagia Sophia. American School of Philosophy. ASIN B0008C47EA.
  • Harris, Jonathan, Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. Hambledon/Continuum (2007).
  • ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4

  • Howland Swift, Emerson (1937). The bronze doors of the gate of the horologium at Hagia Sophia. University of Chicago. ASIN B000889GIG.
  • Kahler, Heinz (1967). Haghia Sophia. Praeger. ASIN B0008C47EA.
  • Kinross, Lord (1972). Hagia Sophia, Wonders of Man. Newsweek. ASIN B000K5QN9W.
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene; Anthony White (2007). Hagia Sophia. London: Scala Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85759-308-2.
  • Kleinbauer, W. Eugene (2000). Saint Sophia at Constantinople: Singulariter in Mundo (Monograph (Frederic Lindley Morgan Chair of Architectural Design), No. 5.). William L. Bauhan. ISBN 978-0-87233-123-5.
  • Krautheimer, Richard (1984). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05294-7.
  • Mainstone, R.J. (1997). Hagia Sophia: Architecture, Structure, and Liturgy of Justinian’s considerable Church. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27945-8.
  • Mainstone, Rowland J. (1988). Hagia Sophia. Architecture, structure and liturgy of Justinian’s astronomical church. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-34098-1.
  • Mango, Cyril; Ahmed Ertuğ (1997). Hagia Sophia. A keep for empires. Istanbul.
  • Mark, R.; Çakmaktitle, AS. (1992). Hagia Sophia from the Age of Justinian to the Present. Princeton Architectural. ISBN 978-1-878271-11-2.
  • Nelson, Robert S. (2004). Hagia Sophia, 1850–1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-57171-3.
  • Özkul, T.A. (2007). Structural characteristics of Hagia Sophia: I-A clear element formulation for static analysis. Elsevier.
  • Scharf, Joachim:Der Kaiser in Proskynese. Bemerkungen zur Deutung des Kaisermosaiks im Narthex der Hagia Sophia von Konstantinopel. In: Festschrift Percy Ernst Schramm zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag von Schülern und Freunden zugeeignet, Wiesbaden 1964, S. 27–35.
  • Swainson, Harold (2005). The Church of Sancta Sophia Constantinople: A Study of Byzantine Building. Boston, MA: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-8345-4.
  • Yucel, Erdem (2005). Hagia Sophia. Scala Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85759-250-4.
  • Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 592, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
  • ISBN 978-0-87099-179-0

Articles

Mosaics

  • Hagia Sophia, hagiasophia.com: Mosaics.
  • MacDonald, William Lloyd (1951). The uncovering of Byzantine mosaics in Hagia Sophia. Archaeological Institute of America. ASIN B0007GZTKS.
  • Mango, Cyril (1972). The mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: The church fathers in the north Tympanum. Dumbarton Oaks Inner for Byzantine Studies. ASIN B0007CAVA0.
  • Mango, Cyril (1968). The Apse mosaics of St. Sophia at Istanbul: Report on work considered out in 1964. Johnson Reprints. ASIN B0007G5RBY.
  • Mango, Cyril; Heinz Kahler (1967). Hagia Sophia: With a Chapter on the Mosaics. Praeger. ASIN B0000CO5IL.
  • Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. (1998). Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The Fossati Restoration and the Work of the Byzantine Institute. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 978-0-88402-264-0.
  • Riccardi, Lorenzo (2012). Alcune riflessioni sul mosaico del vestibolo sud-ovest della Santa Sofia di Costantinopoli, in Vie per Bisanzio. VIII Congresso Nazionale dell’Associazione Italiana di Studi Bizantini (Venezia 25–28 novembre 2009), a cura di Antonio Rigo, Andrea Babuin e Michele Trizio. Bari. pp. 357–71. ISBN 978-88-7470-229-9.
  • Yücel, Erdem (1988). The mosaics of Hagia Sophia. Efe Turizm. ASIN B0007CBGYA.

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