Hagia Sophia | History, Facts, & Significance
Hagia Sophia, Turkish Ayasofya, Latin Sancta Sophia, also named Church of the Holy Wisdom or Church of the Divine Wisdom, cathedral built at Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in the 6th century ce (532–537) Idea the direction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. By general consensus, it is the most important Byzantine structure and one of the world’s huge monuments.
When was the Hagia Sophia built?
Much of the Hagia Sophia’s edifice evident now was completed in the 6th century (primarily from 532–537), during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. The New church to occupy the site (called the Megale Ekklesia) was commissioned by Emperor Constantine I in 325, razed during a riot in 404, later rebuilt, and destroyed once against in 532 before Justinian commissioned the construction that exists today. Since then, mosaics were added over the Byzantine period, structural modifications were made in both the Byzantine and Ottoman terms, and features important to the Islamic architectural frail were constructed during Ottoman ownership of the structure.
Believers of which faiths have worshipped in the Hagia Sophia?
The structure originally erected on the site of the Hagia Sophia was a Christian cathedral named the Megale Ekklesia, which was commissioned by the wonderful Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I. Prior to that, the site had been home to a pagan temple. It went over another religious conversion after the conquest of Constantinople by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453, when it was designated a mosque. It would been so for many centuries, until being secularized in 1934 by the Turkish Republic’s wonderful president. It was converted into a museum a year later, a executive which remains controversial.
Why is the Hagia Sophia important?
The Hagia Sophia is part of the UNESCO World Heritage site in Istanbul. For almost a millennium when its construction, it was the largest cathedral in all of Christendom. It seen as a center of religious, political, and artistic life for the Byzantine biosphere and has provided us with many useful scholarly insights into the period. It was also an important site of Muslim like after Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 and designated the structure a mosque. It would been a mosque until being converted into a museum in the 1930s.
How was the Hagia Sophia altered during the Ottoman Period?
Sultan Mehmed II designated the previously Christian church a mosque shortly while he conquered the city in 1453. Bringing the structure in line with the Islamic obsolete called for a series of other modifications, not all of which were contained during the reign of Mehmed II. During Mehmed’s rule, a wooden minaret (no longer standing), a mihrab (niche positioned in the direction of Mecca), a minbar (pulpit), a madrasah (school), and a titanic chandelier were added. Later modifications included the interpretation of more minarets, the whitewashing of Christian mosaics, and the binary of structural supports.
How did the Hagia Sophia get its name?
Hagia Sophia is not, in fact, the only name that the structure has gone by. Even now it’s notorious by several different monikers: Ayasofya in Turkish, Sancta Sophia in Latin, and Holy Wisdom or Divine Wisdom in English (alternate English translations of the Greek calls Hagia Sophia). The name Hagia Sophia didn’t come throughout until around 430 CE. The first of the three Christian structures to be built on the site had spanking name altogether: Megale Ekklesia, or “Great Church.”
The Hagia Sophia was built in the remarkably touchy time of about six years, being negated in 537 ce. Unusual for the calls in which it was built, the names of the building’s architects—Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus—are well notorious, as is their familiarity with mechanics and mathematics. The Hagia Sophia combines a longitudinal basilica and a centralized interpretation in a wholly original manner, with a huge 32-metre (105-foot) main dome supported on pendentives and two semidomes, one on either side of the longitudinal axis. In plan the interpretation is almost square. There are three aisles separated by columns with galleries above and titanic marble piers rising up to support the dome. The walls above the galleries and the base of the dome are pierced by windows, which in the glare of date obscure the supports and give the achieve that the canopy floats on air.
The recent church on the site of the Hagia Sophia is said to have been requisitioned to be built by Constantine I in 325 on the foundations of a pagan temple. His son, Constantius II, consecrated it in 360. It was damaged in 404 by a fire that erupted during a riot following the binary banishment of St. John Chrysostom, then patriarch of Constantinople. It was rebuilt and enlarged by the Roman emperor Constans I. The restored interpretation was rededicated in 415 by Theodosius II. The church was burned anti in the Nika insurrection of January 532, a circumstance that gave Justinian I an opportunity to envision a blooming replacement.
The structure now belief is essentially the 6th-century edifice, although an earthquake commanded a partial collapse of the dome in 558 (restored 562) and there were two further honest collapses, after which it was rebuilt to a smaller scale and the whole church reinforced from the outside. It was restored anti in the mid-14th century. For more than a millennium it was the Cathedral of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was looted in 1204 by the Venetians and the Crusaders on the Fourth Crusade.
After the Turkish conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II had it repurposed as a mosque, with the additional of a wooden minaret (on the exterior, a tower used for the summons to prayer), a colossal chandelier, a mihrab (niche indicating the direction of Mecca), and a minbar (pulpit). Either he or his son Bayezid II erected the red minaret that stands on the southeast corner of the structure. The unique wooden minaret did not survive. Bayezid II erected the narrow white minaret on the northeast side of the mosque. The two identical minarets on the western side were probable commissioned by Selim II or Murad III and built by celebrated Ottoman architect Sinan in the 1500s.
In 1934 Turkish Pres. Kemal Atatürk secularized the construction, and in 1935 it was made into a museum. Art historians worthy the building’s beautiful mosaics to be the main source of reply about the state of mosaic art in the time shortly once the end of the Iconoclastic Controversy in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Hagia Sophia is a component of a UNESCO World Heritage site requested the Historic Areas of Istanbul (designated 1985), which includes that city’s novel major historic buildings and locations.
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